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Table 4 Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between proximity to major roads and preterm births (PTB) or term low birth weight (LBW)

From: Residential proximity to major roads and adverse birth outcomes: a hospital-based study

  Model 1 Model 2‡ Model 3§ Model 4**
  Crude model Adjusted model Individual SEP adjusted Individual/area-level SEP adjusted
  OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
PTB*     
Proximity to major roads     
  >200 m 1 1 1 1
  ≤200 m 1.6 (1.3, 1.9) 1.6 (1.4, 2.0) 1.6 (1.3, 1.9) 1.5 (1.3, 1.9)
Proximity to major roads     
  >200 m 1 1 1 1
  50-200 m 1.5 (1.3, 1.9) 1.6 (1.3, 2.0) 1.6 (1.3, 1.9) 1.5 (1.2, 1.8)
  ≤50 m 2.0 (1.2, 3.1) 1.9 (1.2, 3.1) 1.8 (1.1, 3.0) 1.7 (1.0, 2.9)
Term LBW†     
Proximity to major roads     
  >200 m 1 1 1 1
  ≤200 m 1.2 (1.0, 1.6) 1.2 (0.9, 1.5) 1.2 (1.0, 1.6) 1.2 (0.9, 1.6)
Proximity to major roads     
  >200 m 1 1 1 1
  50-200 m 1.2 (1.0, 1.6) 1.2 (0.9, 1.5) 1.2 (0.9, 1.6) 1.2 (0.9, 1.6)
  ≤50 m 1.3 (0.7, 2.5) 1.4 (0.7, 2.8) 1.5 (0.8, 3.1) 1.5 (0.7, 3.0)
  1. *Subjects were all newborns (n = 16,615).
  2. †Subjects were newborns at term birth (n = 14,836).
  3. ‡Adjusted for maternal age, newborn’s sex, maternal alcohol consumption, maternal smoking, maternal body mass index, and paternal smoking. Gestational age was also adjusted in the analysis for term LBW.
  4. § Additionally adjusted for household occupation.
  5. **Additionally adjusted for the proportion of professional workers in the corresponding census.
  6. PTB; preterm birth, LBW; low birth weight, OR; odds ratio, CI; confidence interval, SEP; socio-economic position.