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Table 5 Deployment-related exposure domains surveyed by major studies of U.S. veterans of the first Gulf War

From: An assessment of survey measures used across key epidemiologic studies of United States Gulf War I Era Veterans

Exposure Devens Cohort Study New Orleans VA Registry Nat’l Health Survey PA & HI DoD Registry Iowa Seabees OR & WA Air Nat’l Guard Kansas I Kansas II Millennium Cohort Military Health Survey
Vaccinations
Any vaccine X       X    X X X   X
Anthrax X   X, XS X   X   X X     X X
Typhoid    XS X     X       
Botulism    X, XS X   X   X X      X
Immune globulin    XS X     X       X
Plague    XS X     X       X
Meningococcus    XS X     X       
Medications
Malaria pills    XS X   X   XS       
Pyridostigmine bromide X XS X, XS X   X X X, XS X X   X   X
Ciprofloxacin & antibiotics X   XS X     X, XS       
Airborne exposures
Wore chemical protective gear X   XS X X   X X      X X
Petrol fuels/solvents or fumes    X X   X X XS X      X
Smoke, oil fires, combustion products X XS X, XS X X X X X, XS X X   X   
Smoke from tent heaters X XS X, XS X   X X X, XS X      X
Vehicle exhaust X XS   X           
Chemical or biological warfare agents X XS XS      XS X X    X X
Nerve gas    X X   X X        
Mustard gas    X X   X X        
SCUD missile or artillery explosions nearby; debris contact X XS XS X   X X   X X   X   X
Burning trash or feces X XS X, XS X    X   X     XS  
CARC paint    X X   X X   X    X   X
Radiation sources
Depleted uranium    X X   X X XS X    X X X
Microwaves    X X   X X       X  
Sources of infection or contaminants
Contaminated or local food X   X X   X X X X X     
Contaminated or local water X XS X X   X X X X X     
Pesticides X XS X X   X X X X X   X X X
Live/dead animals or insects X   XS X    X X X    X   
Psychological trauma
Life events X   XS X X   X   XS X    X  
Combat-related stressors X X XS XS   X X   XS     X X
Direct combat duty X   X, XS X X X X X   X   X X X
Witnessed casualties X   XS X X X X X   X   X X X
Contact with POW    XS X    X X     X X X
Physical injury X   XS   X X X    X    XS X
Suffered forced sexual relations, assault, or sexual harassment    XS X    X   XS     X X
Behavioral risk factors
Alcohol use X XS XS X X   X X X X    X X
Tobacco use X XS X X X X X X X X   X X X
References [3, 2527, 40, 134] [3, 8, 45, 135] [48, 51] [10, 136, 137] [17, 58, 59] [30, 138140] [2, 38] [12, 31] [13, 32, 141] [4, 33, 142] [1] [14] [34, 143145]a [35]
  1. Abbreviations: CARC Chemical agent resistant coating, DoD Department of Defense, HI Hawaii, OR Oregon, PA Pennsylvania, POW Prisoner of war, VA Department of Veterans Affairs, WA Washington.
  2. Note: subscripted “S” designates that some data for that domain are only available for a subset of the study sample.
  3. aAdditional reference: personal communication by Dr. Nancy Crum-Cianflone of the Naval Health Research Center.