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Table 1 Studies of genetic polymorphisms, anti-oxidant supplements, and PM 2.5 -induced cardiorespiratory morbidity

From: PM2.5, oxidant defence and cardiorespiratory health: a review

Study Design and location Population Polymorphism(s)/treatment Ambient exposure Outcome(s)g Main findings/effect estimates
Cardiovascular outcomes      
Schwartz et al. 2005 (11)a,h Normative Aging Study Cohort Boston, US (2000–2004) 497 Caucasian Men Mean Age: 73 years GSTM1 48-hour average PM2.5 HF Change Per 10 μg/m3 GSTM1-present − 3.6% (95% CI: -40.5, 56.2) GSTM1-null − 34% (95% CI: -53, -7.2)
Chahine et al. 2007 (13)a,h Normative Aging Study Cohort Boston, USA (2000–2005) 539 Caucasian Men Mean Age: 73 years GSTM1 HMOX-1 promoter 48-hour average PM2.5 SDNN, HF, LF Change per 10 μg/m3 GSTM1-present SDNN: -2.0% (95% CI: -11.3, 8.3) HF: -4.0% (95% CI: -24.8, 22.6) LF:-0.6% (95% CI: -19.0, 22.0) GSTM1-null SDNN: -10.5% (95% CI: -18.2, -2.2) HF: -24.2% (95% CI: -39.2, -5.5) LF: -17.0% (95% CI: -31.0, -0.2) HMOX-1 short repeat SDNN: 7.4% (95% CI:-8.7, 26.2) HF: 8.9% (95% CI:-27.1, 62.8) LF: 14.0% (95% CI: -18.6, 59.5) HMOX-1 long repeat SDNN: -8.5% (95% CI: -14.8, -1.8) HF: -20.1% (95% CI: -32.9, -5.0) LF: -14.0% (95% CI: -25.7, -0.5) GSTM1-null and HMOX-1 long repeat SDNN: -12.7% (95% CI: -20.6, -3.9) HF: -27.8% (95% CI: -43.0, -8.5) LF: -20.1% (95% CI: -34.5, -2.7)
Park et al. 2006 (12)b,h Prospective Cohort Boston, US (2000–2004) 518 Caucasian Men Mean Age: 73 years HFE 48-hour average PM2.5 HF LF LF/HF SDNN Change Per 10 μg/m3 HFE wild type HF: -31.7% (95% CI: -48.1, -10) The authors noted that similar associations were observed for SDNN, LF, and LF/HF but the data was not shown.
Ren et al. 2010 (15)c,h Prospective Cohort Boston, US (1995–2006) 1000 Caucasian Men Mean Age: 72 years HFE NQO1 CAT GSTM1 GSTP1 GSTT1 HMOX-1 7-day PM2.5 moving average Total plasma homocysteine Change Per 4.56 μg/m3 HFE wild type 1.81% (95% CI: 0.46, 3.16) HFE-variant (rs1800562) − 2.5% (95% CI: -5.68, 0.68) CAT wild type 0.75% (95% CI: -0.85, 2.35) CAT-variant (rs2300181) 2.84% (95% CI:’.06, 4.62)
Madrigano et al. 2010 (14)d,h Prospective Cohort Boston USA (1998–2008) 809 Caucasian Men Mean Age: 74 years GSTM1 HMOX-1 HFE 1-3 day PM2.5 moving average sICAM-1 sVCAM-1 Polymorphisms in GSTM1, HMOX-1, or HFE genes did not modify the relationship between PM2.5 exposure and serum concentrations of sICAM-1 or sVCAM-1 (effect estimates not reported)
Romieu et al. 2005 (31)e Randomized Double-Blind Trial 60 Adults Mean Age: 80 years 2 g/day fish oil or 2 g/day soy oil Daily Indoor PM2.5 HF LF pNN50 SDNN rMSSD Change Per 8 μg/m3 Pre-Supplementation Group (fish oil) Log10 HF: -54% (95% CI: -72, -24) Log10 LF: -48% (95% CI :-69, -15) Log10 pNN50: -44% (95% CI : -56, -27) Log10 SDNN : -27% (95% CI : -37, -16) Log10 rMSSD: -32% (95% CI: -43, -19) Supplementation Phase (fish oil) Log10 HF: -7% (95% CI: -20, 7) Log10 LF: -10% (95% CI : -22, 3) Log10 pNN50: -5% (95% CI: -12, 2) Log10 SDNN: -0.5% (95% CI: -4, 3) Log10 rMSSD: 0.02% (95% CI: -7, 8)
Respiratory Outcomes
Breton et al. 2011 (30)f Prospective Cohort California, USA (1993–2004) 2106 Children Mean Age (baseline): 10 years GSS Yearly Average PM2.5 Lung function growth in: FEV1 FVC MMEF Per 22.2 μg/m3 GSS-H0100000 FEV1: -124 ml (95% CI: -203, -45.3) FVC: -92.9 ml (95% CI: -186, 0.2) MMEF: -193.9 ml/s (95% CI: -352.2, -35.6) Other GSS Haplotypes FEV1: -49 ml (95% CI: -182, 83.9) FVC: -106.8 ml (95% CI: -247, 33.2) MMEF: -70.9 ml/s (95% CI: -309, 167.3)
  1. a Adjusted for age, smoking, body mass index, diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, alcohol consumption, cardiovascular medications, season, and temperature.
  2. b Adjusted for age, smoking, body mass index, mean arterial blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, history of ischemic heart disease, fasting blood glucose, alcohol consumption, cardiovascular medications, season, day of the week, and temperature.
  3. c Adjusted for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, smoking, alcohol consumption, serum creatinine, plasma folate, and vitamins B6 and B12.
  4. d Adjusted for age, temperature, obesity, smoking, statin use, and diabetes.
  5. e Adjusted for age, sex, heart rate, hypertension, body mass index, and time of day.
  6. f Adjusted for height, sex, body mass index, asthma diagnosis, respiratory illness at testing, exercise, smoking, ethnicity, cohort, town, field technician, GSTM1, and ancestry.
  7. g HF, high frequency heart rate variability; LF, low frequency heart rate variability; SDNN, standard deviation of normal to normal intervals; pNN50, percentage of normal RR intervals differing by more than 50 ms; rMSSD, root mean square of the sum of square differences between adjacent intervals; ICAM-1, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule; sVCAM-1, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule; NQO1, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinine] 1; CAT, catalase; GSH, reduced glutathione; GSS, GSH synthetase; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1-second; FVC, forced vital capacity; MMEF, maximal mid-expiratory flow.
  8. h Previously reviewed by Zanobetti et al.[21].