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Table 3 Summary of effect estimates (excess risk per 10 μg/m 3 ) from cohort studies on coarse particulate matter and elemental carbon (per 1 μg/m 3 ) and mortality from all causes and cardiovascular diseases

From: Long-term air pollution exposure and cardio- respiratory mortality: a review

Study name Study design Follow-up period Pollutant Conca (μg/m3) Spatial scaleb % change in risk (95% CI) in mortality References
       All causes Cardiovascular c  
Coarse PM         
ACS study 500,000 adults 51 US cities 1982 - 1998 PM2.5–15 19 (6) City 1 (−2 3) 2 (−2, 5)* [18]
AHSMOG study 3769 California seventh-day Adventists 1977 – 1992 PM2.5–15 27 (4 – 44) Address (Inter) 5 (−8, 20) NA [63]
Nurses’ Health Study 66,250 women from US north eastern metropolitan areas 1992- 2002 PM2.5–10 8 (0 – 27) Address (LUR) 3 (−11, 18) NA [25]
Health professionals follow-up study 17,545 highly educated men in the midwestern and northeastern US 1989 – 2003 PM2.5–10 10 (3) Address (LUR) −10 (−22, 4) 8 (−10, 29) [29]
EC         
Netherlands Cohort Study 120, 852 subjects from Netherlands 1987 - 1996 BSe 17 (9–36) Address (LUR) 5 (0, 11) 4 (−5, 13) [23]
ACS study (extended) 500,000 adults 51 US cities 1982 – 1998 EC IQR = 0.31 City 6 (1, 11) 11 (3, 19) [64]
Worcester MI survivors 3,895 MI patients 1995 - 2005 EC 0.4 (0.1 – 0.9) Address (LUR) 2 (−7, 11)d NA [65]
15 (3, 29)
Vancouver cohort 452,735 Vancouver residents 45–85 yr 1999 – 2002 BC 1.5 (0–5) Address (LUR) NA 6 (3, 9) [30]
PAARC 14,284 adults in 24 French areas 1974 – 1998 BS 44 (18–77) Address (near) 7 (3, 10) 5 (−2, 12) [42]
Veteran’s study 70,000 male US veterans 1997 – 2001 EC 0.6 (0.1 – 2.0) County (mean) 18 (5, 33) NA [66]
California teachers study 45,000 female teachers 2002 -2007 EC 1.1 (0.2 – 2.4) Address (near) 3 (−11,19) 11 (−9, 36) [27]
Two Scotch cohorts 15, 402 and 7,028 adults from West-central and central Scotland 1972 - 1998 1970 - 1998 BS 19 LUR + temporal 5 (1,9) 7 (0, 13) [67]
  1. a Mean with minimum – maximum in parentheses (μg/m3). One number in parentheses is standard deviation.
  2. b Spatial scale of exposure assignment, in parentheses exposure assignment method. City = average of monitors within the city; Near = nearest monitor concentration; LUR = land use regression; Disp = dispersion modeling; Inter = interpolation.
  3. c Cardio-pulmonary mortality reported if cardiovascular mortality not available.
  4. d HRs for first two years after MI and after the first two years of survival.
  5. e BC (Black Carbon), BS (Black Smoke) and EC (Elemental carbon) are different markers used to assess soot. Increases consistent with a 1 μg/m3 increase in EC were used [7].
  6. Studies adjusted for individual smoking except references [26, 28, 30, 34, 38, 56].