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Table 4 Summary of cohort studies on NO 2 and mortality from all causes and cardiovascular diseases (excess risk per 10 μg/m 3 )

From: Long-term air pollution exposure and cardio- respiratory mortality: a review

Study name Study population Follow-up period Pollutant Conca(μg/m3) Spatial scaleb % change in risk (95% CI) in mortality per 10 μg/m3 References
       All causes Cardiovascular  
Oslo cohort 16,209 men in Oslo, Norway 1972 – 1998 NOx 11 (1 – 168) Address (DISP) 8 (6,11) NA [68]
Netherlands Cohort Study 120, 852 subjects from Netherlands 1987 -1996 NO2 37 (15–67) Address (LUR) 8 (0, 16) 7 (−6, 21) [23]
German cohort 4752 women in Ruhr and surrounding area 1985 – 2003 NO2 39 (20 – 60) Address (near) 11 (1,21) 36 (14, 63) [20]
German cohort 4752 women in Ruhr and surrounding area 1985 – 2008 NO2 39 (20 – 60) Address (near) 11 (4,18) 32 (18, 47) [21]
PAARC 14,284 adults in 24 French areas 1974 – 1998 NO2 20 (12 – 32) Address (near) 14 (3, 25) 27 (4, 56) [42]
China nat. hypertension survey 70,497 men and women 1991 - 2000 NOx 50 (20 – 122) City 2 (0, 3) 2 (1, 4) [31]
Vancouver cohort 452,735 Vancouver residents aged 45–85 yr 1999 – 2002 NO2 32 (15 – 58) Address (LUR) NA 5 (1, 9) [30]
DCH 52,061 adults in Copenhagen and Arhus 1993 - 2009 NO2 17 (11 – 60) Address (DISP) 8 (2, 13) 15 (3,27) [69]
US trucking industry cohort 53,814 men in the US trucking industry 1985 -2000 NO2 28 (14) Address (LUR) 5 (3, 7) 4 (0, 8) [32]
Chinese retrospective cohort study 9,941 adults from five districts of Shenyang city 1998 -2009 NO2 46 (18–78) District (mean) 145 (134, 158) 146 (131, 163) [33]
Rome longitudinal study 684,000 adults from Rome 2001 - 2006 NO2 45 (11) Address (LUR) 4 (3, 5) NA [56]
California Teachers study 101,784 female teachers 1997 -2005 NO2 67 (10 – 134) Address (Inter) −3 (−9, 4) −2 (−12, 9) [36]
Shizuoka elderly cohort 13,444 adults > 65 yr 1999 - 2006 NO2 25 (−19, 75) Address (LUR) 2 (−4, 8) 15 (3, 28) [70]
Ontario tax cohort 205, 440 adults in Toronto, Hamilton,Windsor 1982 – 2004 NO2 43 (8), 31 (6), 24 (5)c Address (LUR) NA 8 (5, 11) [71]
Rome longitudinal study 1,265,058 adults from Rome 2001 - 2010 NO2 44 (13–75) Address (LUR) 3 (2, 3) 3 (2, 4) [38]
  1. a Mean with minimum – maximum in parentheses (μg/m3). One number in parentheses is standard deviation.
  2. b Spatial scale of exposure assignment, in parentheses exposure assignment method. City = average of monitors within the city; Near = nearest monitor concentration; LUR = land use regression; Disp = dispersion modeling; Inter = interpolation.
  3. c Mean (IQR) per city.
  4. Studies adjusted for individual smoking except references [26, 28, 30, 34, 38, 56].