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Table 3 Associations (95% CI) based on meta-analyses of contaminants and occupation and birth outcomes

From: Environmental risk factors of pregnancy outcomes: a summary of recent meta-analyses of epidemiological studies

  Still birth Gestational age/pre term delivery Birth weight /low birth weight/ small for gestational age Congenital anomalies
Water contaminants-DBPs high vs low 1.09 (1.02, 1.17) N=5 [17] No stat sign association n=6 [23] SGA: 1.01 (1.00, 1.02)/10 ug/L N=6 [23] VSD 1.59 (1.21, 2.07) [25]Any congenital anomaly: high vs. low 1.17 (1.02, 1.34) N=5 high vs. low VSD 1.59 (1.21, 2.07) N=3 [24]
POPs-PCB153-DDE   No stat sign association N=12 [26] No stat sign association N=12 [26] −150 g (−50, -250 g)/1 μg/L N=12 (Govarts et al. 2012)(26) No stat sign association N=12 [26]  
Occupation     Paternal solvent exposure Any malformation 1.47 (1.18, 1.83) N=6 Neural tube defects 1.86 (1.40, 2.46) N=5 Anencephaly 2.18 (1.52, 3.11) N=3 [27] Maternal pesticides Oral Clefts 1.37 (1.04, 1.81) N=5 [28] Maternal pesticides 1.36 (1.04, 1.77) N=7 [29] Paternal pesticides 1.19 (1.00, 1.41) N=8 [29]
Pesticides     Agent orange Birth defects 1.95 (1.59, 2.39) [30] Agent orange Spina Bifida 2.02 (1.48, 2.74) [31]