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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics for adults aged 40 to 65 years (N = 8194) in the national health and nutritional examination survey, United States, 1999-2008 a

From: Allostatic load amplifies the effect of blood lead levels on elevated blood pressure among middle-aged U.S. adults: a cross-sectional study

   Blood lead quintile  
Characteristic Total Quintile 1 Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5  
  (N = 8194) (N = 1411) (N = 1510) (N = 1608) (N = 1638) (N = 2027)  
Blood lead (μg/dL); geometric mean (GSE) 1.69 (0.02) 0.76 (0.01) 1.25 (0.00) 1.67 (0.00) 2.25 (0.01) 3.88 (0.03) **
 Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg); mean (SE) 124.33 (0.30) 122.23 (0.55) 122.43 (0.53) 124.59 (0.49) 125.48 (0.57) 126.92 (0.62) **
 Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg); mean (SE) 74.81 (0.20) 74.30 (0.37) 74.16 (0.38) 74.99 (0.32) 74.96 (0.32) 75.65 (0.34) **
Elevated blood pressure, % (SE)        
Systolic > 140 mm Hg 16.4 (0.6) 13.9 (1.2) 13.3 (1.1) 15.9 (1.2) 17.5 (1.0) 21.4 (1.4) **
Diastolic > 90 mm Hg 7.8 (0.5) 5.5 (0.7) 6.5 (0.8) 8.1 (0.9) 9.2 (0.9) 9.6 (0.8) **
Age (years), mean (SE) 50.9 (0.15) 48.4 (0.22) 50.0 (0.25) 51.3 (0.27) 52.2 (0.26) 52.6 (0.21) **
Male sex, % (SE) 49.1 (0.6) 25.1 (1.7) 39.3 (1.5) 51.8 (1.4) 59.0 (1.5) 70.5 (1.5) **
Race/Ethnicity, % (SE)        **
 Non-Hispanic White 75.7 (1.3) 80.1 (1.6) 77.9 (1.7) 77.6 (1.4) 74.5 (1.6) 68.3 (2.1)  
 Non-Hispanic Black 9.7 (0.8) 6.7 (0.7) 8.3 (0.8) 8.8 (0.9) 9.9 (0.9) 14.8 (1.4)  
 Mexican American 5.7 (0.6) 5.3 (0.7) 5.2 (0.6) 5.5 (0.7) 5.4 (0.6) 7.2 (0.9)  
 Other Hispanic 4.2 (0.6) 4.0 (0.7) 4.6 (1.1) 4.4 (0.9) 4.1 (0.7) 4.1 (0.9)  
 Other 4.7 (0.4) 3.9 (0.7) 4.0 (0.7) 3.7 (0.6) 6.1 (0.9) 5.6 (0.8)  
Educational attainment, % (SE)        **
 Less than 9th grade 5.4 (0.4) 3.2 (0.4) 4.2 (0.5) 5.7 (0.7) 5.6 (0.6) 8.3 (0.7)  
 9th - 12th grade (no diploma) 10.9 (0.5) 7.4 (0.9) 9.1 (0.8) 8.7 (0.9) 12.1 (0.9) 17.3 (1.2)  
 High school graduate or equivalent 24.6 (0.8) 22.7(1.5) 22.9 (1.5) 24.6 (1.4) 26.0 (1.5) 26.7 (1.4)  
 Some college or associates (AA) degree 30.6 (0.8) 32.0 (1.5) 30.3 (1.7) 32.1 (1.3) 29.5 (1.6) 29.3 (1.1)  
 College graduate or above 28.5 (1.2) 34.7 (2.0) 33.5 (2.0) 28.9 (1.9) 26.9 (1.7) 18.3 (1.4)  
Marital status, % (SE)        **
 Married or living with partner 73.2 (0.8) 75.6 (1.6) 75.6 (1.2) 72.6 (1.4) 71.4 (1.5) 70.8 (1.4)  
 Divorced, separated, or widowed 19.9 (0.7) 17.5 (1.4) 18.3 (1.2) 20.0 (1.2) 22.2 (1.4) 21.6 (1.3)  
 Never married 6.9 (0.4) 6.9 (0.8) 6.1 (0.8) 7.4 (0.9) 6.4 (0.7) 7.7 (0.8)  
Smoking status, % (SE)        **
 Never 47.2 (0.8) 69.1 (1.5) 56.4 (1.6) 45.4 (1.7) 36.3 (1.6) 28.9 (1.3)  
 Former 28.9 (0.7) 23.4 (1.3) 27.4 (1.5) 31.6 (1.4) 31.0 (1.3) 31.1 (1.4)  
 Current 23.9 (0.8) 7.4 (0.8) 16.2 (1.1) 23.0 (1.5) 32.7 (1.8) 40.0 (1.4)  
Alcohol consumption, % (SE)        **
 None 25.5 (1.0) 36.9 (2.0) 30.0 (1.6) 22.1 (1.3) 21.8 (1.3) 16.6 (1.2)  
 Less than 1 drink per week 34.8 (0.9) 39.9 (1.7) 36.6 (1.5) 34.8 (1.6) 31.3 (1.4) 31.5 (1.6)  
 1 to 3 drinks per week 11.4 (0.5) 12.6 (1.1) 13.0 (1.1) 13.0 (1.0) 10.4 (0.9) 8.1 (0.7)  
 3 or more drinks per week 28.3 (0.9) 10.6 (1.2) 20.4 (1.3) 30.2 (1.7) 36.6 (1.5) 43.8 (1.7)  
Use of antihypertensive medication, % (SE) 23.5 (0.7) 26.3 (1.5) 22.4 (1.5) 21.9 (1.3) 23.1 (1.3) 23.7 (1.4)  
  1. Abbreviations: GSE geometric standard error, SE standard error.
  2. a All estimates are adjusted for survey design and sample weights. Differences across groups were evaluated using the chi square test for categorical data and analysis of variance for continuous data. **P < 0. 05.