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Table 4 Adjusted odds ratio for elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure by quintiles of blood lead exposure among adults aged 40 to 65 years in the national health and nutritional examination survey, United States, 1999-2008 a

From: Allostatic load amplifies the effect of blood lead levels on elevated blood pressure among middle-aged U.S. adults: a cross-sectional study

  All participants (N = 8,194) Low allostatic loadb(N = 4,069) High allostatic loadb(N = 4,125)
  OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Elevated systolic blood pressure (≥ 140 mm Hg) c
 Pb Exposure       
  Quintile 1 1.00 Reference 1.00 Reference 1.00 Reference
  Quintile 2 0.87 0.66, 1.15 0.81 0.55, 1.19 0.96 0.66, 1.38
  Quintile 3 1.00 0.76, 1.31 0.86 0.61, 1.21 1.20 0.82, 1.75
  Quintile 4 1.03 0.78, 1.37 0.88 0.56, 1.39 1.23 0.86, 1.76
  Quintile 5 1.23 0.92, 1.65 1.14 0.79, 1.66 1.40 0.99, 1.97
Test for trend P = 0.06 P = 0.24 P = 0.03
Elevated diastolic blood pressure (≥ 90 mm Hg) d
 Pb Exposure       
  Quintile 1 1.00 Reference 1.00 Reference 1.00 Reference
  Quintile 2 1.22 0.82, 1.81 0.85 0.45, 1.60 1.66 0.93, 2.95
  Quintile 3 1.56 1.11, 2.19 1.51 0.83, 2.75 1.67 0.97, 2.85
  Quintile 4 1.80 1.24, 2.60 1.73 0.96, 3.12 1.92 1.07, 3.47
  Quintile 5 1.77 1.25, 2.50 1.46 0.80, 2.68 2.28 1.33, 3.91
Test for trend P = 0.0002 P = 0.03 P = 0.002
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio.
  2. aAdjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and antihypertensive medication use.
  3. bLow allostatic load is equal to a score between 7 and 20. High allostatic load is equal to a score between 21 and 35.
  4. cPb and AL test of interaction for elevated systolic blood pressure: P = 0.74.
  5. dPb and AL test of interaction for elevated diastolic blood pressure: P = 0.40.