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Table 2 Blood lead concentration, environmental lead level (95% CI) and renovation activities at six month intervals during early childhood

From: The contribution of housing renovation to children’s blood lead levels: a cohort study

  Participant age
  6 months 12 months 18 months 24 months
Blood lead (μg/dL) * 2.9 (2.7, 3.1) 5.7 (5.3, 6.2) 6.1 (5.6, 6.6) 7.5 (7.0, 8.2)
Blood lead ≥10μg/dL 1.4% 16.9% 22.7% 33.3%
Blood lead ≥5μg/dL 15.6% 63.8% 65.6% 74.8%
Floor dust lead (μg/ft2) 12.6 (10.9-14.3) 7.6 (6.5-8.7) 7.8 (6.5-9.0) 8.4 (7.0-9.7)
Sill dust lead (μg/ft2) 2,422 (873–3,971) 936 (427–1,444) 633 (405–861) 733 (294–1,172)
Trough dust lead (μg/ft2) 70,662 (58,581-82,743) 14,477 (11,002-17,952) 13,356 (10,425-16,287) 14,473 (10,752-18,194)
Soil lead (μg/g) 1,712 (1,470-1,954) 1,536 (1,295-1,777) 1,583 (1,340-1,826) 1,635 (1,379-1,890)
Paint lead (mg/cm2) 5.0 (4.2-5.7) 4.9 (4.1-5.8) 4.9 (4.1-5.8) 5.3 (4.3-6.2)
Any interior renovation, N (%) 60 (22.5) 62 (23.6) 62 (24.5) 27 (10.8)
Interior, sanding or scraping 43 (15.9) 39 (14.8) 42 (16.6) 15 (6.0)
Window replacement 18 (6.7) 17 (6.5) 13 (5.1) 14 (5.6)
Wall or ceiling replacement 18 (6.7) 24 (9.1) 26 (10.2) 12 (4.8)
Any exterior renovation 61 (26.6) 71 (28.0) 25 (10.4) 25 (10.6)
  1. * All lead values presented are geometric means with 95% Confidence Intervals.