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Table 1 24hr- PM 2.5 (μg/m 3 ) concentrations (5 th to 95 th percentile) in relation to household variables in the 4 states

From: State and national household concentrations of PM2.5 from solid cookfuel use: Results from measurements and modeling in India for estimation of the global burden of disease

Predictors Level PM2.5(μg/m3) in kitchen area PM2.5(μg/m3) living area room
(N = 474 after exclusion of 54 households as outliers) (N = 427 after exclusion of 44 households as outliers)
N Mean (SD) Median N Mean (SD) Median
*Cooking fuel LPG 103 179 (219) 100 91 95 (77) 72
Kerosene 41 254 (317) 100 19 98 (95) 61
Dung 59 741 (539) 621 55 190 (176) 115
Wood 262 590 (575) 386 209 157 (167) 87
*Kitchen area location ODK 56 560 (468) 473 57 167 (169) 91
SOK 213 508 (552) 277 210 142 (146) 87
IWPK 107 371 (509) 177 94 132 (143) 79
IWOPK 92 536 (557) 330 16 144 (185) 81
*Ventilation Poor 129 638 (647) 376 84 186 (173) 113
Moderate 196 454 (513) 259 157 130 (150) 73
Good 144 398 (421) 236 137 120 (112) 84
*Region North 122 512 (549) 252 93 138 (155) 72
East 130 531 (529) 345 118 144 (142) 94
West/Central 138 549 (568) 350 86 200 (171) 146
South 84 283 (413) 128 86 97 (114) 51
Heating No 349 517 (558) 278 288 151 (154) 92
Indoor 91 443 (496) 220 67 130 (150) 67
Outdoor 26 256 (304) 119 23 90 (81) 50
Indoor smoking No 7 500 (643) 102 20 94 (94) 48
Yes 93 347 (633) 103 50 102 (133) 50
*Family size ≤ 4 138 457 (570) 242 166 141 (156) 75
>4 295 509 (555) 277 203 146 (146) 91
*Cooking hours ≤ 4 hrs 278 392 (443) 218 228 121 (124) 75
> 4 hrs 185 641 (627) 398 143 177 (176) 115
*Numbers of hrs without electricity ≤ 2.5 hrs 107 488 (584) 245 85 153 (163) 93
>2.5 hrs 111 681(620) 510 82 206 (189) 136
Other PM sources No 56 536 (492) 332 39 189 (189) 128
Yes 162 514 (563) 275 110 160 (148) 117
  1. †: No of Households;*: Statistically significant in one way ANOVA and therefore included in model; Number of hrs without electricity is used as a proxy for lighting using kerosene; other PM sources include use of incense, mosquito coils and smoking inside the house . Description of kitchen area types may be found in the main text accompanying equation 1. [Number of households recruited = 617; Valid kitchen measurements in N = 528; Valid living room measurements in N = 427; Number of kitchen measurements after exclusion of outliers = 474; Number of living area measurements after exclusion of = 427; Data shown does not include households on which the respective variables were unspecified (cooking fuel = 9, kitchen location =6 , ventilation =5, heating = 8); unknown(indoor smoking = 374) and/or; unavailable(family size = 41, cooking hours = 11, number of hrs without electricity = 256 or presence of other PM sources = 256)].