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Table 4 Linear and mixed effect models to estimate the differences in GPS-based and self-reported travel time (self-reported – GPS) for home to work and work to home trips

From: Travel patterns during pregnancy: comparison between Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking and questionnaire data

  General linear regression Mixed effect model (fixed effects)
  Beta Standard error p-value Partial R2 VIF Beta Standard error p-value
Home to work trips (93 tripsa from 31 subjects) (Model R2 = 0.33; cross validation R2 = 0.29)  
Intercept -17.62 5.11 0.0009   0 -17.16 8.13 0.0439
Self-reported distance for home to work trips -0.27 0.08 0.0011 0.09 1.53 -0.28 0.12 0.0196
Vehicle make (Japanese car: 1; other: 0) 7.81 2.24 0.0008 0.09 1.07 7.24 3.44 0.0397
Rush hour (yes/no) -7.42 2.52 0.0041 0.07 1.07 -5.97 2.29 0.0114
More than two persons in the household (yes/no) 6.52 2.29 0.0055 0.04 1.06 5.72 3.48 0.1054
Percentage of travel time on freeways 16.12 4.43 0.0005 0.04 1.56 19.49 5.78 0.0013
Work to home trips (89 trips from 31 subjects) (Model R2 = 0.36; cross validation R2 = 0.31)  
Intercept 0.71 4.50 0.8752   0 0.45 4.91 0.9272
Self-reported duration for work to home trips 0.48 0.07 <.0001 0.32 1.00 0.46 0.10 <.0001
Weekday (yes/no) -10.80 4.43 0.0165 0.04 1.00 -10.57 3.99 0.0105
  1. aExcluding four trips with missing self-reported distance.