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Table 1 Baseline data on cases that later in life developed end-stage renal disease and referents

From: End-stage renal disease and low level exposure to lead, cadmium and mercury; a population-based, prospective nested case-referent study in Sweden

  Cases Referents Difference between cases and referents with 95% confidence intervals/p-value
Cases and referents from both study populations 118 347  
Number of men/women 66/52 194/153  
Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (NSHDS) 72 214  
Malmoe Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS) 46 133  
Characteristics at base-line examination, i.e. prior to diagnosis of end-stage renal disease:
Diabetes (y/n) 20 (21%) 8 (3%) OR = 8.3a (3.5, 22)
Blood pressure (mm Hg), mean(standard deviation)
 Systolic (SBP) 141 (21.3) 135 (19.9) 5.8 a (1.5, 10)
 Diastolic (DBP) 85.8 (11.5) 83.1 (9.6) 2.7 a (0.42, 5.0)
 Hypertensionb (y/n) 66 (54.6%) 125 (34.8%) OR = 2.2a (1.4, 3.5)
Smoking    p = 0.091a
      Never-smoker 34 (31%) 141 (41%)  
      Not current smoker (undefined ex-smoker or never-smoker) 11 (10%) 38 (11%)  
      Ex-smoker 26 (24%) 79 (23%)  
      Current smoker 39 (35%) 82 (24%)  
Mean age at baselinec (years) 63 (40–80) 63 (40–80)  
Mean age at diagnosis of end-stage renal disease (years) 71 (46–87)   
Time from baseline examination to development of end-stage renal disease (years) 7.7 (1–16)   
  1. OR=odds ratio.
  2. aDifferences in binary variables were expressed as ORs with 95% confidence intervals, continues variables as the difference with 95% confidence intervals, and p-values using the chi-square test were reported for categorical variables with more than two levels.
  3. bHypertension was defined as SBP >140 or DBP > 90 mm Hg, or antihypertensive medication at baseline.
  4. cmatching factor.