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Table 4 Associations between RF-EMF exposures and feeling ‘Down or depressed’ (symptom)

From: The relationship between adolescents’ well-being and their wireless phone use: a cross-sectional study

Symptom Symptom categories (N for unadjusted model/N for adjusted model) Exposure Exposure categories (N for unadjusted model/N for adjusted model) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) for each exposure category Adjusted OR (95% CI) for each exposure category Confounders in model
Down/depressed No (-/220) Minutes on cordless phone daily 0- < 5 (-/141) Model invalid 1 Cold/flu+
Sometimes (-/85) 5-15 (-/100) 1.00 (0.75-1.37) Times woken by phone+
Often/All the time (-/32) >15-240 (96) 1.02 (0.76-1.37) Wireless earpiece
Age
Down/depressed No (-/206) Cordless calls >10 minutes weekly 0-1 (-/108) Model invalid 1 Cold/flu+
Sometimes (-/85) >1-5 (-/116) 0.92 (0.69-1.24) Times woken by phone+
Often/All the time (-/30) >5-120 (-/97) 1.06 (0.77-1.46) Wireless headset
Age
Down/depressed No (-/226) Cellphone calls >10 minutes weekly 0 (-/269) Model invalid Model invalid Cold/flu+
Sometimes (-/87) 1-6 (-/66) Times woken by phone+
Often/All the time (-/33) 7-35 (-/11) Wireless headset
Age
Down/depressed No (235/233) Cellphone headset No (328/327) 1 1 Cold/flu*+
Yes, sometimes (90/90) Wired (16/16) 1.09 (0.64-1.86) 0.90 (0.51-1.58) Times woken by phone+
Yes, often (27/27) Wireless (14/13) 1.96 (1.10-3.51) 2.04 (1.09-3.82)
Yes, all the time (6/6)
Down/depressed No (99/98) Cordless phone frequency Not exposed (29/27) 1 1 Cold/flu
Sometimes (38/35) ≤ 900 MHz (21/20) 2.22 (1.13-4.38) 2.40 (1.15-5.02) Earpiece
Often (11/10) Other frequencies 1.28 (0.75-2.19) 1.38 (0.76-2.51)
  All the time (3/3)   (101/99)    
  1. Bold font Sig. p < 0.05; *Sig. p ≤ 0.01; + positive association; - negative association; ‘Model invalid’ means it did not meet the criteria outlined in the methods.