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Table 5 Associations between RF-EMF exposures and ‘Wake up in the night’ (symptom)

From: The relationship between adolescents’ well-being and their wireless phone use: a cross-sectional study

Symptom Symptom categories (N for unadjusted model/N for adjusted model) Exposure Exposure categories (N for unadjusted model/N for adjusted model) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) for each exposure category Adjusted OR (95% CI) for each exposure category Confounders in model
Wake in the night No, hardly ever (161/157) Cordless calls >10 minutes weekly 0 (63/61) 1 1 Age*-
1 or 2 weekly (110/107) 1-2 (103/102) 1.04 (0.74, 1.45) 1.10 (0.78, 1.56) Woken by cellphone*+
3 or 4 weekly (27/26) 3-9 (84/79) 1.07 (0.97, 1.53) 1.05 (0.73, 1.51) Wireless headset
Most days (32/30) 10-120 ( 80/78) 1.50 (1.05, 2.16) 1.40 (0.96, 2.04)  
Wake in the night No, hardly ever (-/168) Minutes on 0-4 (-/142) Model invalid 1 Woken by phone**+
1-2 times weekly (-/111) cordless phone 5-15 (-/99) 1.26 (0.87, 1.81) Sex + ♀
3+ times weekly (-/57) daily 16-240 (-/95) 0.82 (0.55, 1.23) Cold/flu
Wake in the night No, hardly ever (175/170) Cellphone calls 0 (276/269 ) 1 1 Woken by phone**+
1 or 2 times weekly (112/112) >10 minutes 1-6 (65/65) 1.70 (1.07, 2.71) 1.58 (0.98, 2.56) Sex
3 or 4 times weekly (31/30) weekly 7-35 (12/12) 1.16 (0.47, 2.84) 0.85 (0.30, 2.36) Cold/flu
Most of the time (35/34)
Wake in the night No, hardly ever (178/175) Cellphone headset No (328/326) 1 1 Woken by phone**+
1 or 2 times weekly (115/115) Wired (16/16) 0.66 (0.29, 1.50) 0.65 (0.28, 1.49) Cold/flu
3 or more times weekly (30/30) Wireless (13/12) 2.24 (1.17, 4.29) 2.42 (1.21, 4.84) Age
Most nights (34/34) Sex
Wake in the night No, hardly ever (71/70) WiFi at home No (70/68) 1 1 Woken by phone
1 – 4 times weekly (52/50) Yes (68/66) 0.65 (0.45-0.63) 0.66 (0.44-0.99) Age
Most nights (15/14) Sex
       Cold/flu
       Wireless headset
  1. Bold font Sig. p < 0.05; *Sig. p ≤ 0.01; **Sig. p ≤ 0.001; + positive association; - negative association; ♀female; ‘Model invalid’ means it did not meet the criteria outlined in the methods.