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Table 7 Associations between RF-EMF exposures and being ‘Tired at school’ (symptom)

From: The relationship between adolescents’ well-being and their wireless phone use: a cross-sectional study

Symptom Symptom categories (N for unadjusted model/N for adjusted model) Exposure Exposure categories (N for unadjusted model/N for adjusted model) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) for each exposure category Adjusted OR (95% CI) for each exposure category Confounders in model
Tired at school No, hardly ever (-//61) Cordless calls >10 minutes weekly 0 (-/60) Model invalid 1 Woken by phone**+
1 or 2 weekly (-/153) 1-2 (-/101) 1.17 (0.81-1. 69) Age-
3 or 4 weekly (-/41) 3-9 (-/80) 0.73 (0.50-1.07) Cold/flu
Most days (-/64) 10-120 ( -/78) 0.90 (0.60-1.34)
Tired at school No, hardly ever (-/73) Minutes on cordless phone daily 0-4 (-/137) Model invalid 1 Woken by phone **+
1-2 times weekly (-/144) 5-15 (-/100) 0.82 (0.86-1.14) Cold/flu*+
3+ times weekly (-/114) 16-240 (-/94) 0.79 (0.55-1.12) Light out time
Tired at school No, hardly ever (-/74) Cellphone calls >10 minutes weekly 0 (-/270) Model invalid 1 Woken by phone**+
1 or 2 times weekly (-/155) 1-6 (-/65) 1.26 (0.75-2.10) Cold/flu+
3 or 4 times weekly (-/46) 7-35 (-/12) 0.72 (0.23-2.25) Decile+
Most of the time (-/72)
Tired at school No (-/34) Cordless phone frequency Not exposed (-/26) Model invalid 1 Cold/flu*+
1-4 days weekly (-/78) ≤ 900 MHz (-/20) 1.26 (0.59-2.70) Light out time +
Most days (-/30) 1.8-1.9 GHz (-/25) 1.92 (0.93-3.96) Use phone headset
2.4 GHz (-/53) 1.01 (0.55-1.87) Woken at night
5.8 GHz (-/18) 1.79 (0.83-3.87) TV in bedroom
Tired at school No, hardly ever (35/32) Cordless phone system Not exposed (29/25) 1 1 Light out time +
1-4 days weekly (75/71) DECT (51/50) 1.30 (0.73-2.33) 1.09 (0.57-2.11) Use phone headset
Most days (27/26) DSS (27/25) 2.50 (1.30-4.80)* 2.53 (1.21-5.31)* Woken at night
Analogue (30/29) 1.51 (0.80-2.87) 1.24 (0.60-2.58) Cold/flu
TV in bedroom
Tired at school No, hardly ever (-/75) Cellphone headset No (-/318) Model invalid 1 Woken by phone**+
1 or 2 times weekly (-/155) Wired (-/16) 1.11 (0.42, 2.93) Cold/flu*+
3 or 4 times weekly (-/47) Wireless (-/13) 1.38 (0.47, 4.04) Decile+
  Most days (-/70)      Light out time
  1. Bold font Sig. p < 0.05; *Sig. p ≤ 0.01; **Sig. p ≤ 0.001; + positive association; - negative association; ‘Model invalid’ means it did not meet the criteria outlined in the methods.