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Table 4 Distribution (%) of prevalent health-related variables in urban population aged 45-72 years according to self-reported park use

From: Accessibility and use of urban green spaces, and cardiovascular health: findings from a Kaunas cohort study

Risk factors Self-reported park use Odds ratio (OR)# of park use χ2and p value
  Yes No OR (95% CI)  
N = 2543 N = 2569
Smoking     14.6, p = 0.001
Regular 17.4 21.0** 0.82 (0.69-0.97)  
Ex-smoker 16.7 18.0 0.93 (0.79-1.09)  
Never 65.9 61.0*** 1 (Reference)  
Total cholesterol, mmol/L     0.72, p = 0.698
<5.2 24.7 25.7 1 (Reference)  
5.2-6.19 36.4 35.8 1.08 (0.93-1.25)  
≥6.2 38.9 38.5 1.06 (0.92-1.22)  
BMI, kg/m 2     14.2, p = 0.001
<25.0 23.0 21.0 1 (Reference)  
25.0-29.9 40.9 37.7* 0.99 (0.85-1.16)  
≥30.0 36.2 41.3*** 0.75 (0.64-0.88)  
Arterial hypertension, mmHg     0.84, p = 0.360
Yes 64.2 65.5 0.92 (0.81-1.04)  
No 35.8 34.5 1 (Reference)  
Leisure-time physical activity     21.2, p < 0.001
Active 78.3 72.8 1 (Reference)  
Inactive 21.7 27.2*** 0.74 (0.64-0.84)  
Fasting glucose level, mmol/L     10.9, p = 0.004
<5.55 48.0 44.2** 1 (Reference)  
5.55-6.99 44.7 46.5 0.86 (0.76-0.96)  
≥7.0 7.3 9.3* 0.67 (0.55-0.83)  
Self-rated health     6.63, p = 0.036
Very poor and poor 11.3 13.1* 0.69 (0.56-0.83)  
Average 57.9 58.6 0.86 (0.76-0.99)  
Very good and good 30.8 28.3* 1 (Reference)  
Quality of life     8.82, p = 0.012
Very poor and poor 3.0 4.1* 0.63 (0.46-0.85)  
Average 44.7 47.1 0.88 (0.78-0.99)  
Very good and good 52.3 48.8* 1 (Reference)  
Coronary heart disease     0.05, p = 0.828
No 84.0 83.8 1 (Reference)  
Yes 16.0 16.2 0.91 (0.78-1.06)  
Stroke     0.18, p = 0.675
No 98.5 98.7 1 (Reference)  
Yes 1.5 1.3 1.06 (0.67-1.69)  
Diabetes mellitus     4.65, p = 0.031
No 94.3 92.8 1 (Reference)  
Yes 5.7 7.2* 0.72 (0.58-0.90)  
  1. BMI–body mass index, CI–confidence interval, # adjusted by: age, sex, and education. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, compared to “Yes”.
  2. Arterial hypertension “Yes” = mean systolic blood pressure (BP) of at least 140 mm Hg or mean diastolic BP of at least 90 mm Hg, or both, and/or that respondent had been taking antihypertensive drugs during the last two weeks. Arterial hypertension “No” = systolic BP < 140 and diastolic BP <90 mm Hg.