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Table 5 Adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of distance to green spaces and park use among Kaunas middle-aged and elderly population and the risk of CVD

From: Accessibility and use of urban green spaces, and cardiovascular health: findings from a Kaunas cohort study

Analyzed health-related factors Risk of total CVD* Risk of non-fatal CVD*
HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)
Men and women   
Distance to green spaces   
1st tertile 1 (Reference) --
2nd tertile 1.20 (0.90-1.61) --
3rd tertile 1.36 (1.03-1.80) --
Distance to green spaces and park use   
1st tertile x user -- 1 (Reference)
1st tertile x non-user -- 1.50 (0.83-2.72)
2nd and 3rd tertile x user -- 1.58 (0.95-2.63)
2nd and 3rd tertile x non-user -- 1.66 (1.01-2.73)
Men   
Distance to green spaces   
1st tertile 1 (Reference) --
2nd tertile 1.38 (0.94-2.03) --
3rd tertile 1.51 (1.04-2.19) --.
Distance to green spaces and park use   
1st tertile x user -- 1 (Reference)
1st tertile x non-user -- 0.96 (0.44-2.12)
2nd and 3rd tertile x user -- 1.47 (0.80-2.70)
2nd and 3rd tertile x non-user -- 1.17 (0.63-2.18)
Women   
Distance to green spaces   
1st tertile 1 (Reference) --
2nd tertile 1.06 (0.67-1.66) --
3rd tertile 1.22 (0.79-1.89) --.
Distance to green spaces and park use   
1st tertile x user -- 1 (Reference)
1st tertile x non-user -- 1.80 (0.71 4.56)
2nd and 3rd tertile x user -- 2.61 (0.97-7.02)
2nd and 3rd tertile x non-user --k 2.78 (1.16-6.70)
  1. CVD–cardiovascular diseases, CI–confidence interval. n.s.–not significant. -- - not included into the model. * adjusted by: age, sex, education, smoking, arterial hypertension, physical activity, total cholesterol level, fasting glucose level, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, cognitive function, symptoms of depression, self-rated health, and quality of life. Non-fatal CVD–all incident cases of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina pectoris, or stroke. Total CVD–all fatal and non-fatal CVD cases. Distance to green space: the 1st tertile–≤347.8 m (high); the 2nd tertile–347.81–629.6 m (moderate); and the 3rd tertile–≥629.61 m (low).