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Table 2 Baseline characteristics by dietary greenhouse gas emission and land use in EPIC-NL

From: Reducing our environmental footprint and improving our health: greenhouse gas emission and land use of usual diet and mortality in EPIC-NL: a prospective cohort study

  Greenhouse gas emission (CO2-eq/d) Land use (m2*year/d)
Characteristic Quartile 1 <3.26 Quartile 4 >4.56 Quartile 1 <2.99 Quartile 4 >4.28
No. of subjects 8770 8769 8769 8769
No. of deathsa 736 (8.4) 570 (6.5) 741 (8.5) 558 (6.4)
Person-yearsb 15.8 (14.6-17.0) 16.0 (14.7-17.2) 15.8 (14.6-16.9) 16.0 (14.7-17.2)
GHGEb,c 2.86 (2.56-3.07) 5.12 (4.79-5.62) 2.84 (2.55-3.14) 5.10 (4.71-5.62)
Land useb, d 2.62 (2.31-2.88) 4.78 (4.42-5.28) 2.61 (2.31-2.82) 4.80 (4.51-5.28)
Age (years)b 52 (44–59) 48 (37–54) 53 (44–60) 48 (37–54)
Male gendera 896 (10.2) 4521 (51.6) 766 (8.7) 4727 (53.9)
BMI (kg/m 2)b 24.8 (22.4-27.1) 25.5 (23.2-28.0) 24.7 (22.3-27.0) 25.5 (23.2-28.0)
High education levela,e 1601 (18.4) 2025 (23.3) 1640 (18.8) 2141 (24.6)
Current smokersa 2466 (28.2) 3086 (35.3) 2179 (25.0) 2607 (29.8)
CPAI-‘active’a,f 3249 (37.1) 2488 (48.2) 3379 (38.5) 4070 (46.4)
Waist circumference (cm)b 81.0 (74.3-89.0) 87.3 (80.0-95.8) 81.0 (74.0-89.0) 87.8 (80.0-96.0)
Energy intake (MJ)b 6.4 (5.6-7.3) 11.0 (9.4-12.8) 6.4 (5.6-7.4) 10.9 (9.43-12.8)
Ratio EI/BMRb,g 1.1 (1.0-1.3) 1.6 (1.4-1.9) 1.1 (1.0-1.3) 1.6 (1.4-1.9)
Alcohol use (g)b 2.1 (0.2-9.1) 10.3 (2.2-24.0) 1.5 (0.1-6.6) 12.9 (3.5-28.0)
Dietary intakeb     
  Potatoes 69 (41–105) 122 (75–179) 66 (41–101) 123 (76–180)
  Vegetables 108 (82–140) 138 (107–175) 111 (84–145) 134 (105–171)
  Legumes 5 (2–11) 8 (3–15) 5 (2–11) 8 (3–15)
  Fruit, nuts & seeds 142 (92–250) 192 (118–300) 171 (109–262) 170 (104–274)
  Dairy 261 (143–402) 533 (321–763) 308 (171–466) 453 (258–683)
  Non-processed meath 41 (23–58) 99 (84–125) 36 (21–51) 101 (87–126)
  Processed meati 15 (6–27) 40 (22–48) 14 (5–23) 43 (25–67)
  Cereals 148 (11–193) 233 (171–311) 147 (111–191) 238 (174–315)
  Fish 6 (2–14) 10 (-17) 7 (2–14) 9 (4–16)
  Egg 11 (5–18) 16 (9–29) 11 (5–18) 17 (10–29)
  Fat 20 (13–28) 34 (23–48) 19 (12–27) 36 (24–49)
  Sugar & confectionary 31 (17–50) 48 (27–76) 31 (18–50) 47 (25–76)
  Cake & biscuits 22 (11–37) 27 (14–45) 22 (11–37) 26 (13–44)
  Beverages 1325 (1041–1670) 1717 (1368–2140) 1327 (1038–1678) 1726 (1395–2135)
  Condiments & sauces 12 (5–22) 22 (11–33) 11 (5–22) 23 (12–34)
  Soups 36 (17–72) 72 (33–107) 36 (17–72) 72 (33–107)
  Miscellaneous 5 (2–11) 7 (3–15) 6 (2–11) 8 (4–15)
  1. aValues displayed as frequency (percentage); bValues displayed as median with interquartile range (25-75th percentile); cGHGE: greenhouse gas emission (C02-eq/d); dLand use (m2*year/d); ecollege or university degree; fCambridge Physical Activity Score (inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, active); gRatio of energy intake (EI) and basal metabolic rate (BMR); hnon-processed meat: beef, pork, and chicken; iprocessed meat: liver-containing items, ham, and miscellaneous types.