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Table 3 Data for mortality risks according to greenhouse gas emissions of usual diet in EPIC-NL

From: Reducing our environmental footprint and improving our health: greenhouse gas emission and land use of usual diet and mortality in EPIC-NL: a prospective cohort study

  Greenhouse gas emission (CO2-eq/d) P for linear trend
<3.26 3.26 - 3.87 3.87 - 4.56 >4.56
All-cause mortality      
 No. of participants 8770 8769 8771 8769  
 No. of deaths 736 671 586 570  
 Person-years, median 15.8 15.9 15.8 16.0  
 Crude HRa (95% CI) 1 (REF) 0.90 (0.81-1.00) 0.79 (0.71-0.88) 0.76 (0.68-0.85) P < 0.0001d
 Model 1b HR 1 0.97 (0.84-1.12) 0.90 (0.77-1.05) 1.00 (0.86-1.17) P = 0.7959
 Model 2b,c HR 1 0.96 (0.82-1.11) 0.87 (0.74-1.03) 0.95 (0.77-1.15) P = 0.4266
Cause-specific mortality     
Cancer      
 No. of deaths 327 324 274 268  
 Crude HRa (95% CI) 1 (REF) 0.99 (0.85-1.15) 0.83 (0.71-0.98) 0.81 (0.69-0.96) P = 0.0031d
 Model 1b HR 1 1.01 (0.89-1.33) 0.93 (0.75-1.16) 1.01 (0.86-1.34) P = 0.7654
CVD      
 No. of deaths 164 146 115 120  
 Crude HRa (95% CI) 1 (REF) 0.89 (0.71-1.11) 0.70 (0.55-0.89) 0.73 (0.57-0.92) P = 0.0023d
 Model 1b HR 1 0.92 (0.67-1.26) 0.83 (0.59-1.17) 0.90 (0.63-1.28) P = 0.4681
Respiratory diseases      
 No. of deaths 41 37 32 27  
 Crude HRa (95% CI) 1 (REF) 0.90 (0.58-1.40) 0.78 (0.79-1.23) 0.65 (0.40-1.06) P = 0.0687
 Model 1b HR 1 1.01 (0.53-1.91) 0.76 (0.39-1.49) 1.12 (0.52-2.39) P = 0.9945
Other causes      
 No. of deaths 157 124 128 120  
 Crude HRa (95% CI) 1 (REF) 0.79 (0.62-0.99) 0.81 (0.64-1.02) 0.76 (0.60-0.96) P = 0.0334d
 Model 1b HR 1 0.83 (0.59-1.15) 0.96 (0.68-1.35) 0.91 (0.64-1.30) P = 0.7902
  1. aHR: hazard ratio; bCox stratified for age (continuous) and adjusted for sex; cAdditional adjusted for energy intake.
  2. dp value for linear trend significant (p < 0.05).