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Table 5 Environmental impact of 35 gram modelled meat substitution by predefined food groups and all-cause mortality

From: Reducing our environmental footprint and improving our health: greenhouse gas emission and land use of usual diet and mortality in EPIC-NL: a prospective cohort study

Substitute Reduction GHGE (%)a Reduction land use (%)a Reduction mortality risk (%, 95% CI)b
Potatoes 10.8 11.3 0 (-6 – 7)
Pasta-rice-couscous 10.1 9.7 11 (4 – 16)
Vegetables 10.0 10.8 9 (3 – 15)
Fruit, nuts and seeds 10.0 10.3 6 (1 – 10)
Milk-based dessertsc 10.0 10.9 4 (0 – 9)
Fish 4.5 9.8 19 (3 – 33)
Cheese 0.6 4.5 6 (-4 – 14)
Remove 35 gram meat 11.5 11.7 4 (2 – 7)
(No replacement)    
  1. aBased on the average greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) and land use in EPIC-NL; bCox stratified for age (continuous) and adjusted for gender, BMI (continuous), smoking status, physical activity, energy intake (continuous), and alcohol intake (continuous); c: consists of (fruit)yoghurt, cream desserts, and milk-based puddings.