Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of 1,262 participants that reported experiencing any symptom during pregnancy versus no symptoms (2008–2010)

From: A prospective cohort study of the association between drinking water arsenic exposure and self-reported maternal health symptoms during pregnancy in Bangladesh

  Reporting any symptom  
  No (n = 467) Yes (n = 795) p-value
Mean (SD), arsenic at enrollment (μg/L) 20.9 (70.8) 50.0 (104.1) <0.0001
Median (IQR), arsenic at enrollment (μg/L) 1.6 (0.8, 5.2) 7.0 (1.1, 58.0) <0.0001 a
Mean (SD) age at enrollment (yrs) 22.6 (4.0) 23.1 (4.3) 0.05
  (n) % (n) %  
Drinking water arsenic quartiles    
 Q4 (Mean: 144.7 μg/L, range: 32–1,400 μg/L) (68) 14.56 (244) 30.69 <0.0001
 Q3 (Mean: 12.0 μg/L, range: 2.1–31 μg/L) (77) 16.49 (226) 28.43  
 Q2 (Mean: 1.5 μg/L; range: 0.9–2 μg/L (185) 39.61 (142) 17.86  
 Q1 (Mean: 0.7 μg/L; range: 0.5–0.89 μg/L) (137) 29.34 (183) 23.02  
BMI at time of enrollment (kg/m2)    
 <18.5 (117) 25.05 (246) 30.94 0.05
 18.5–24.9 (299) 64.03 (481) 60.5  
 ≥ 25.0 (51) 10.92 (68) 8.55  
Environmental tobacco smoke    
 Absent (319) 68.6 (418) 52.64 <0.001
 Present (146) 31.4 (376) 47.36  
Missing 2 1  
Maternal education    
 Illiterate/Able to write name (47) 10.13 (144) 18.14 <0.0001
 Primary education (199) 42.89 (216) 27.2  
 ≥ Secondary education (218) 46.98 (434) 54.66  
Missing 3 1  
Parity    
 0 (214) 45.82 (309) 38.87 0.01
 1-2 (213) 45.61 (385) 48.43  
 ≥3 (40) 8.57 (101) 12.7  
Anemia (hemoglobin ≤ 12 g/dL)    
 No (327) 70.32 (647) 81.49 <0.0001
 Yes (138) 29.68 (147) 18.51  
Missing 2 1  
Ferritin    
 Severe deficiency (<20 μg/L) (80) 18.06 (108) 14.3 0.0007
 Mild deficiency (20–40 μg/L) (138) 31.15 (179) 23.71  
 None (>40 μg/L) (225) 50.79 (468) 61.99  
Missing 24 40  
Sanitation at home    
 Sanitary latrine (372) 79.83 (469) 59.14 <0.0001
 Other (94) 20.17 (324) 40.86  
Missing 1 2  
Taking herbs/medication    
 No (459) 98.5 (719) 90.44 <0.0001
 Yes (7) 1.5 (76) 9.56  
Missing 1 0  
Income (taka/month)    
 <3000 (45) 9.89 (176) 22.34 <0.0001
 3001–5000 (270) 59.34 (412) 52.28  
 ≥ 5000 (137) 30.11 (175) 22.21  
 Refused/don’t know (3) 0.66 (25) 3.17  
Missing 12 7  
  1. aWilcoxon test performed on natural log transformed values.