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Table 2 Associations specific symptoms and select characteristics of 1,262 mothers that were followed throughout pregnancy (2008–2010)

From: A prospective cohort study of the association between drinking water arsenic exposure and self-reported maternal health symptoms during pregnancy in Bangladesh

  Cold/Flu/infection Nausea/vomiting Abdominal cramping Headache
  No (n = 1035) Yes (n = 227) p-value No (n = 762) Yes (n = 500) p-value No (n = 794 ) Yes (n = 468) p-value No (n = 850) Yes (n = 412) p-value
Median (IQR) ln arsenic (μg/L) 0.69 (−0.13, 3.47) 0.53 (−0.15, 2.83) 0.11 0.59 (−0.19, 2.91) 1.96 (0.18, 4.11) <0.001 0.59 (−0.17, 2.71) 2.39 (0.18, 4.21) <0.001 0.64 (−0.11, 3.26) 1.02 (−0.15, 3.81) 0.23
Mean (SD) age (yrs) 22.8 (4.1) 23.1 (4.6) 0.46 22.7 (4.1) 23.1 (4.4) 0.09 22.8 (4.2) 23 (4.1) 0.56 22.9 (4.2) 22.8 (4.1) 0.73
  (n) % (n) %   (n) % (n) %   (n) % (n) %   (n) % (n) %  
Drinking water arsenic quartiles             
Q4 (High) (264) 25.51 (48) 21.15 0.26 (152) 19.95 (160) 32.0 <0.001 (150) 18.89 (162) 34.62 <0.001 (195) 22.94 (117) 28.4 0.04
Q3 (249) 24.06 (54) 23.79   (163) 21.39 (140) 28.0   (163) 20.53 (140) 29.91   (205) 24.12 (98) 23.79  
Q2 (260) 25.12 (67) 29.52   (231) 30.31 (96) 19.2   (262) 33.0 (65) 13.89   (239) 28.12 (88) 21.36  
Q1 (Low) (262) 25.31 (58) 25.55   (216) 28.35 (104) 20.8   (219) 27.58 (101) 21.58   (211) 24.82 (109) 26.46  
BMI (kg/m2)             
<18.5 (295) 28.5 (68) 29.96 0.07 (206) 27.03 (157) 31.4 0.24 (214) 26395 (149) 31.84 0.10 (243) 28.59 (120) 29.13 0.87
18.5-24.9 (651) 62.9 (129) 56.83   (481) 63.12 (299) 59.8   (498) 62.72 (282) 60.26   (529) 62.24 (251) 60.92  
≥ 25.0 (89) 8.6 (30) 13.22   (75) 9.84 (44) 8.8   (82) 10.33 (37) 7.91   (78) 9.18 (41) 9.95  
Second hand smoke             
Absent (622) 60.27 (115) 50.66 0.008 (487) 64.16 (250) 50.0 <0.001 (485) 61.24 (252) 53.96 0.01 (524) 61.79 (213) 51.82 0.0008
Present (410) 39.73 (112) 49.34   (272) 35.84 (250) 50.0   (307) 38.76 (215) 46.04   (324) 38.21 (198) 48.18  
Num. missing 3 0   3 0   2 1   2 1  
Maternal education             
Illiterate/able to write name (150) 14.55 (41) 18.06 0.41 (88) 11.59 (103) 20.64 <0.0001 (110) 13.91 (81) 17.34 0.01 (122) 14.4 (69) 16.79 0.02
Primary education (343) 33.27 (72) 31.72   (295) 38.87 (120) 24.05   (284) 35.9 (131) 28.05   (302) 35.66 (113) 27.49  
≥ Secondary education (538) 52.18 (114) 50.22   (376) 49.54 (276) 55.31   (397) 50.19 (255) 54.6   (423) 49.94 (229) 55.72  
Num. missing 4 0   3 1   3 1   3 1  
Parity             
0 (430) 41.55 (93) 40.97 0.98 (323) 42.39 (200) 40.0 0.06 (348) 43.83 (175) 37.39 0.06 (347) 40.82 (176) 42.72 0.75
1-2 (490) 47.34 (108) 47.58   (367) 48.16 (231) 46.2   (365) 45.97 (233) 49.79   (405) 47.65 (193) 46.84  
≥ 3 (115) 11.11 (26) 11.45   (72) 9.45 (69) 13.8   (81) 10.2 (60) 12.82   (98) 11.53 (43) 10.11  
Anemia (hemoglobin ≤ 12 g/dL)             
No (802) 77.71 (172) 75.77 0.53 (569) 74.87 (405) 81.16 0.009 (572) 72.22 (402) 86.08 <0.0001 (652) 76.89 (322) 78.35 0.56
Yes (230) 22.29 (55) 24.23   (191) 25.13 (94) 18.84   (220) 27.78 (65) 13.92   (196) 23.11 (89) 21.65  
Num. missing 3 0   2 1   2 1   2 1  
Serum ferritin             
Severe deficiency (<20 μg/L) (159) 16.21 (29) 13.36 0.55 (122) 16.87 (66) 13.89 <0.0001 (132) 17.79 (56) 12.28 0.02 (137) 16.81 (51) 13.32 0.01
Mild deficiency (20–40 μg/L) (260) 26.5 (57) 26.27   (221) 30.57 (96) 20.21   (199) 26.82 (118) 25.88   (230) 28.22 (87) 22.72  
None (>40 μg/L) (562) 57.29 (131) 60.37   (380) 52.56 (313) 65.89   (411) 55.39 (282) 61.84   (448) 54.97 (245) 63.97  
Num. missing 54 10   39 25   52 12   35 29  
Sanitation at home             
Sanitary latrine (715) 69.22 (126) 55.75 <0.0001 (542) 71.32 (299) 59.92 <0.0001 (580) 73.23 (261) 55.89 <0.0001 (601) 29.04 (240) 58.25 <0.0001
Other (318) 30.78 (100) 44.25   (218) 28.68 (200) 40.08   (212) 26.77 (206) 44.11   (246) 29.04 (172) 41.75  
Num. missing 2 1   2 1   2 1   3 0  
Taking herbs/medication             
No (988) 95.55 (190) 83.7 <0.0001 (739) 97.11 (439) 87.8 <0.0001 (763) 96.22 (415) 88.68 <0.0001 (818) 96.35 (360) 87.38 <0.0001
Yes (46) 4.45 (37) 16.3   (22) 2.89 (61) 12.2   (30) 3.78 (53) 11.32   (31) 3.65 (52) 12.62  
Num. missing 1 0   1 0   1 0   1 0  
Income (taka/month)             
<3000 (185) 18.17 (36) 16.0 0.70 (111) 14.84 (110) 22.22 <0.0001 (97) 12.47 (124) 26.67 <0.0001 (133) 15.95 (88) 21.52 0.006
3001-5000 (558) 54.81 (124) 55.11   (422) 56.42 (260) 52.53   (451) 57.97 (231) 49.68   (474) 56.83 (208) 50.86  
≥ 5000 (254) 24.95 (58) 25.78   (203) 27.14 (109) 22.02   (215) 27.63 (97) 20.86   (214) 25.66 (98) 23.96  
Refused/don’t know (21) 2.06 (7) 3.11   (12) 1.6 (16) 3.23   (15) 1.93 (13) 2.8   (13) 1.56 (15) 3.67  
Num. missing 17 2   14 5   16 3   16 3