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Table 6 Summary results from cohort studies reporting on arsenic exposure and risk of kidney cancer

From: Arsenic in drinking water and urinary tract cancers: a systematic review of 30 years of epidemiological evidence

Study [reference] (Table from original publication) Study locale Outcome ICD1 Arsenic exposure assessment Exposure [comments] Outcome measure Cohort size Cases Risk estimate (95% CI) Covariates assessed
Chen et al. 1988 [70] (Table Six) 4 neighbouring townships from Blackfoot disease (BFD) endemic area, Taiwan Morality 1968-83 N/A Group level Median arsenic content of artesian well and (range): 0.78 ppm (0.35–1.14); in shallow well: 0.04 (0.00-0.30). General population used as reference. 95% CI obtained from IARC 2012 review [23]. SMR 871 3 19.5 (4.0–57.0)  
Lewis et al. 19992[40] (Table Four) Millard County in Utah, USA Mortality (Recruitment 1900–1945) N/A Group level Cumulative arsenic exposure derived from: low exposure (< 1000 ppb-year); medium (1,000-4,999 ppb-year); high (≥ 5,000 ppb-year): SMRmale 4,058 1.75 (0.80–3.32) Individual data on cofactors not available. However, the cohort was assembled from historical membership records of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) which prohibits tobacco use and the consumption of alcohol and caffeine.
SMRfemale 1.60 (0.44–4.11)
< 1,000 ppb•year SMRmale 2.5
SMRfemale 2.4
1,000 - 4,999 ppb•year SMRmale 1.1
SMRfemale 1.3
≥ 5,000 ppb•year [Residential history combined with local water records used to assess exposure. High variability in exposure estimates in each community with median arsenic concentrations ranging from 14 to 166 ppb. Records of arsenic measurements dating back to 1964.] SMRmale 1.4
SMRfemale 1.1
†Baastrup et al. 2008 [96] (Table Three) 23 municipalities in Copenhagen & Asrhus areas, Dannemark Incidence 1993-1997 (Follow-up from enrollment until date of first cancer diagnosis, emigration, death, or Aug. 2003) N/A Individual level ‘estimated’ Cumulated arsenic exposure (5 mg˙): IRR 56,378 53 0.94 (0.84–1.06) smoking status, smoking duration, smoking intensity, education, occupation
Time-weighted average exposure (μg˙•L-1): IRR 53 0.89 (0.65–1.21)
      [Average arsenic exposure from 0.05 to 25.3 μg˙•L-1, with mean of 1.2 μg˙•L-1. Average arsenic concentrations obtained from 4,954 samples from 2,487 water utilities collected, 1987–2004, with most samples dating 2002–04. Residential history 1970–2003.]      
  1. †Recent study not included in the International Agency for Research on Cancer 2012 review (Monograph 100C [23]).
  2. 1ICD = International Classification of Disease. N/A = not available.
  3. 295% Confidence intervals not available for data at low, medium and high exposure.