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Table 1 Heat-effect estimates at 25th and 75th percentiles of city-specific geographic, socio-demographic and climatic characteristics according to random effects meta-regression analysis

From: Effects of high summer temperatures on mortality in 50 Spanish cities

   At p25 of characteristic   At p75 of characteristic  
City-characteristics (units) p25 %RRa (95% CI) p75 %RRa (95% CI) pb
Heat exposure
p99th-p90th of maximum temperature (°C) 4.0 14.0 (12.0, 16.0) 4.8 16.4 (14.2, 18.7) 0.011
Geographic
Latitude 38.6 15.7 (13.1, 18.4) 42.2 14.0 (11.3, 16.8) 0.318
Longitude −5.4 16.7 (14.1, 19.4) −1.2 13.5 (11.2, 15.9) 0.039
Socio-demographic
Population (×100,000 hab.)c 0.7 14.2 (11.3, 17.2) 6.7 15.1 (13.0, 17.3) 0.480
% Pop. >65 yearsc 0.1 14.7 (12.0, 17.5) 0.2 15.1 (12.5, 17.8) 0.820
Per capita income (×1,000 €)d 8.6 15.9 (13.2, 18.7) 11.3 14.1 (11.6, 16.7) 0.273
Climate
Whole year
  Mean temperature (°C) 13.1 14.9 (12.1, 17.8) 17.2 15.0 (12.4, 17.6) 0.967
  Relative humidity (%) 61.3 15.7 (12.9, 18.6) 70.6 14.4 (11.9, 16.9) 0.414
Summer (Jun. To Sep.)
  Mean temperature (°C) 19.6 14.5 (11.7, 17.4) 24.6 15.3 (12.6, 18.1) 0.679
  Relative humidity (%) 48.9 16.5 (13.6, 19.4) 66.5 13.9 (11.6, 16.3) 0.158
  1. a.Percentage of relative risk of mortality comparing the p99 vs. p90 of max. temp.
  2. b.p for comparison of change in mortality at p75 vs. p25.
  3. c.Source: Demographic Information System, Municipal Register 1999, National Statistics Institute.
  4. d.Source: Spanish Regional Accounts, Base 2000, National Statistics Institute.