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Table 2 Estimates of associations of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage with environmental and occupational exposures among hospitalized patients at Vidant Medical Center in eastern North Carolina, 2011

From: A case control study of environmental and occupational exposures associated with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in patients admitted to a rural tertiary care hospital in a high density swine region

  No. (%) Conditioned on age and gender, adjusted for education
  Controls Cases OR 95% CI
(n = 119) (n = 117)
Permitted swine per square mile of block group     
 0 72 (60.5) 59 (50.4) 1.00 -
 >0-149 7 (5.9) 20 (17.1) 4.76 1.36-16.69
 >149 40 (33.6) 38 (32.5) 0.95 0.53-1.72
Permitted farrowing swine per square mile of block group     
 0 87 (73.1) 77 (65.8) 1.00 -
 >0-149 17 (14.3) 34 (29.1) 1.99 0.99-4.00
 >149 15 (12.6) 6 (5.1) 0.42 0.15-1.13
Permitted non-farrowing swine per square mile of block group     
 0 77 (64.7) 70 (59.8) 1.00 -
 >0-149 5 (4.2) 10 (8.6) 2.04 0.61-6.85
 >149 37 (31.1) 37 (31.6) 0.95 0.54-1.68
Live within 1 mile of a concentrated animal feeding operation     
 No 89 (74.8) 94 (80.3) 1.00 -
 Yes 30 (25.2) 23 (19.7) 0.60 0.31-1.16
Ever smell odor from a farm with animals when at home     
 No 97 (81.5) 86 (73.5) 1.00 -
 Yes 22 (18.5) 31 (26.5) 1.51 0.80-2.86
Ever have contact with pigs, chickens, cows, or turkeysa     
 No 109 (91.6) 112 (95.7) 1.00 -
 Yes 10 (8.4) 5 (4.3) 0.52 0.15-1.82
Ever have contact with horsesa     
 No 110 (92.4) 110 (94.0) 1.00 -
 Yes 9 (7.6) 7 (6.0) 0.70 0.22-2.21
Ever have contact with uncooked meat products at work or at home     
 No 40 (33.6) 44 (37.6) 1.00 -
 Yes 79 (66.4) 73 (62.4) 0.81 0.46-1.41
Current member of the work forceb     
 No 70 (58.8) 80 (68.4) 1.00 -
 Yes 49 (41.2) 37 (31.6) 0.74 0.41-1.33
Household members present     
 No 23 (19.3) 15 (12.8) 1.00 -
 Yes 96 (80.7) 102 (87.2) 1.66 0.81-3.39
Live in a rural areac     
 No 57 (47.9) 54 (46.1) 1.00  
 Yes 62 (52.1) 63 (53.9) 0.92 0.55-1.54
Human population density in block group of residence,d mean (std) 1003.2 (1416.0) 920.7 (1346.3) 1.00 0.83-1.21
  1. Abbreviations: odds ratio, OR; confidence interval, CI.
  2. aExposed category includes participants who reported direct contact outside of work and/or indirect contact at work; no participant reported direct contact at work.
  3. bDefined as working within the 2 weeks preceding the current hospital admission.
  4. cDefined based on address and using 2010 United States Census Bureau definition of rural and urban areas, with urban areas and clusters combined into a single category.
  5. dDefined as population/square mile in census block group of residence. Entered into the model as a linear term, and the estimate represents the odds ratio for every increase in 1,000 people/square mile.