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Table 2 Associations of phthalates with markers of diabetes risk in the overall population, NHANES 2001-2008

From: Gender and racial/ethnic differences in the associations of urinary phthalate metabolites with markers of diabetes risk: national health and nutrition examination survey 2001–2008

Phthalate metabolites* Biomarkers for diabetes
Fasting glucose Fasting insulin HOMA-IR
Median change (95% CI)**
MEP    
Q1 Ref. Ref. Ref.
Q2 1.30 (0.15, 2.46) 0.25 (-0.50, 0.99) 0.11 (-0.06, 0.27)
Q3 0.38 (-0.75, 1.51) 0.34 (-0.35, 1.02) 0.10 (-0.07, 0.28)
Q4 0.49 (-0.80, 1.77) 0.60 (-0.13, 1.34) 0.20 (0.03, 0.38)
p for trend 0.7589 0.1480 0.0477
MBzP    
Q1 Ref. Ref. Ref.
Q2 -0.30 (-1.48, 0.87) 0.77 (0.16, 1.39) 0.21 (0.06, 0.37)
Q3 -0.06 (-1.25, 1.13) 1.09 (0.39, 1.79) 0.26 (0.09, 0.44)
Q4 -0.24 (-1.49, 1.02) 1.44 (0.50, 2.38) 0.37 (0.15, 0.59)
p for trend 0.7058 0.0070 0.0028
MnBP    
Q1 Ref. Ref. Ref.
Q2 0.95 (-0.22, 2.13) 1.15 (0.52, 1.78) 0.28 (0.11, 0.44)
Q3 1.70 (0.51, 2.89) 1.41 (0.72, 2.09) 0.28 (0.11, 0.46)
Q4 1.91 (0.51, 3.31) 1.11 (0.31, 1.92) 0.34 (0.15, 0.54)
p for trend 0.0193 0.0918 0.0059
MiBP    
Q1 Ref. Ref. Ref.
Q2 1.87 (0.83, 2.92) 1.45 (0.85, 2.04) 0.38 (0.23, 0.52)
Q3 2.77 (1.75, 3.80) 1.23 (0.57, 1.89) 0.35 (0.19, 0.51)
Q4 3.69 (2.60, 4.78) 1.73 (0.92, 2.54) 0.53 (0.33, 0.72)
p for trend <0.0001 0.0028 0.0002
MCPP    
Q1 Ref. Ref. Ref.
Q2 0.72 (-0.44, 1.89) 0.90 (0.24, 1.55) 0.23 (0.06, 0.40)
Q3 0.94 (-0.34, 2.21) 1.31 (0.59, 2.03) 0.34 (0.16, 0.52)
Q4 2.42 (1.22, 3.62) 0.94 (0.12, 1.77) 0.28 (0.07, 0.48)
p for trend <0.0001 0.0629 0.0269
∑DEHP    
Q1 Ref. Ref. Ref.
Q2 1.47 (0.30, 2.63) 1.74 (1.04, 2.45) 0.49 (0.31, 0.66)
Q3 1.75 (0.66, 2.84) 1.99 (1.31, 2.66) 0.51 (0.34, 0.69)
Q4 2.45 (1.29, 3.60) 2.60 (1.82, 3.38) 0.68 (0.47, 0.88)
p for trend 0.0016 <0.0001 <0.0001
  1. *All analyses adjusted for age, sex, race, urinary creatinine, fasting time, total caloric intake, triglyceride, education, smoking status and poverty.
  2. **Fasting glucose: mg/dL, fasting insulin: uU/mL.