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Table 1 Ethical considerations for intergenerational environmental justice

From: DDT, epigenetic harm, and transgenerational environmental justice

1 Consent/Respect for Autonomy: Members of future generations cannot consent to risks and harms imposed by earlier generations.
2 Nonmaleficence: Members of future generations are harmed, via health deficits associated with epigenetics, due to exposure of ancestors to DDT (and other toxicants).
3 Justice: Members of future generations bear a disproportionate balance of risks and harms, whereas members of the current generation, when DDT is being used, enjoy disproportionate benefits.