Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of children and their parents by ASD status

From: Blood manganese concentrations in Jamaican children with and without autism spectrum disorders

Variables Categories ASD Case (n = 109) TD Control (n = 109) P-value
N (%) N (%)
Sex of child Male 92 (84.4) 92 (84.4) 1.00
Age of child (months) Age < 48 21 (19.3) 18 (16.5) 0.29
48 ≤ age < 72 49 (45.0) 50 (45.9)
Age ≥ 72 39 (35.7) 41 (37.6)
Place of child’s birth Kingston parish 22 (20.2) 76 (69.7) <0.01
Other parishes 87 (79.8) 33 (30.3)
Maternal education a (at child’s birth) Up to high school* 56 (51.4) 81 (76.4) <0.01
Beyond high school** 53 (48.6) 25 (23.6)
Paternal education b (at child’s birth) Up to high school* 58 (54.7) 92 (87.6) <0.01
Beyond high school** 48 (45.3) 13 (12.4)
Number of children in the household (Age ≤ 18 years) 1 - 2 86 (78.9) 58 (53.2) <0.01
≥ 3 23 (21.1) 51 (46.8)
Number of adults in the household (Age > 18 years) c 1 - 2 72 (66.1) 65 (60.7) 0.47
≥ 3 37 (33.9) 42 (39.3)
Assets owned TV 107 (98.2) 102 (93.6) 0.10
Refrigerator 106 (97.2) 93 (85.3) <0.01
Freezer 14 (12.8) 21 (19.3) 0.20
Living room set 91 (83.5) 51 (46.8) <0.01
Washing machine 79 (72.5) 57 (52.3) <0.01
Cars or other vehicle 72 (66.1) 39 (35.8) <0.01
Telephone/Cell phone 109 (99.1) 108 (99.1) 1.00
Cable/Satellite connection 68 (62.4) 40 (36.7) <0.01
  1. *Up to high school education includes: attended primary, junior-secondary, and secondary/high/technical schools.
  2. **Beyond high school education includes: attended vocational, tertiary college, or university.
  3. aMaternal education was missing for 3 controls.
  4. bPaternal education was missing for 3 cases and 4 controls.
  5. cNumber of adults in the household was missing for 2 control families.