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Table 3 Factors associated with blood manganese concentrations (BMC) by ASD case status and combined samples using General Linear Model (GLM) for all participants (218 children or 109 pairs)

From: Blood manganese concentrations in Jamaican children with and without autism spectrum disorders

Exposure variables Category t-test Univariable analysis GLM
ASD cases TD Controls
Mean BMC (SD) (μg/L) P-value Mean BMC (SD) (μg/L) P-value P-value***
Yes* No** Yes* No**
Age of Child More than 4 years 10.8 (2.8) 11.1 (3.2) 0.64 10.2 (2.4) 12.0 (3.4) 0.01 0.29
Sex of Child Male 10.8 (2.9) 11.2 (3.1) 0.58 10.4 (2.5) 11.1 (3.4) 0.32 0.29
Place of child’s birth Kingston parish 11.7 (2.5) 10.7 (2.9) 0.31 10.3 (2.7) 10.8 (2.8) 0.43 0.71
Paternal age (at child’s birth) More than 35 years 10.8 (2.7) 10.8 (3.10) 0.97 11.0 (3.5) 10.3 (2.4) 0.24 0.02
Maternal age More than 35 years 11.0 (3.1) 10.9 (2.8) 0.85 9.9 (1.6) 10.6 (2.8) 0.45 0.53
(at child’s birth)
Parental education levels At least one of the parents had education beyond high school 10.5 (2.8) 11.6 (3.0) 0.06 10.7 (3.0) 10.3 (2.4) 0.38 0.82
(at child’s birth)
Source of drinking water Piped water 10.8 (2.9) 11.8 (1.5) 0.43 10.6 (2.7) 8.6 (1.6) 0.14 0.33
Source of cooking water Piped water 10.8 (2.9) 11.8 (1.5) 0.43 10.6 (2.7) 8.6 (1.6) 0.14 0.37
Fruits and vegetables consumption Root vegetables A. Yam, sweet potato, or dasheen 10.9 (2.9) 10.9 (3.3) 0.89 10.3 (2.6) 11.1 (3.2) 0.28 0.06
B. Carrot or pumpkin 10.9 (3.0) 10.7 (2.3) 0.81 10.5 (2.7) 10.5 (2.10) 0.99 0.66
Leafy vegetables A. Lettuce 11.1 (3.0) 10.7 (2.8) 0.49 10.3 (2.3) 10.6 (3.2) 0.67 0.94
B. Callaloo, broccoli, or pakchoi 10.9 (3.0) 10.9 (2.7) 0.91 10.5 (2.7) 10.5 (3.0) 0.96 0.99
C. Cabbage 10.7 (2.7) 11.3 (3.1) 0.26 10.4 (2.7) 11.1 (2.1) 0.49 0.14
Legumes String beans 11.1 (3.2) 10.8 (2.7) 0.66 10.1 (2.3) 10.7 (2.9) 0.23 0.32
Fruits Tomatoes 11.1 (2.9) 10.5 (2.8) 0.24 10.4 (2.5) 11.1 (3.4) 0.38 0.82
Ackee 10.8 (2.7) 11.1 (3.1) 0.59 10.5 (2.7) 9.9 (2.1) 0.51 0.89
Avocado 11.1 (2.1) 10.8 (3.1) 0.60 10.5 (2.7) 10.5 (2.6) 0.94 0.80
Green banana 10.8 (3.0) 11.0 (2.6) 0.83 10.5 (2.8) 9.8 (1.8) 0.44 0.31
Fried plantains 11.1 (2.7) 10.4 (3.3) 0.29 10.5 (2.7) 9.8 (2.7) 0.39 0.55
Seafood consumption High seafood consumption (More than 6 meals per week) 10.9 (2.8) 10.9 (2.9) 0.97 10.8 (2.7) 10.2 (2.7) 0.24 0.63
Ate salt water fish 11.1 (3.0) 10.2 (2.2) 0.17 10.5 (2.7) 10.2 (2.4) 0.75 0.09
Ate fresh water fish (Pond fish, tilapia) 10.9 (2.6) 10.9 (3.1) 0.90 11.0 (2.8) 9.9 (2.5) 0.03 0.54
Ate sardine, mackerel (Canned fish) 10.9 (3.0) 11.0 (2.7) 0.86 10.5 (2.7) 10.5 (2.8) 0.98 0.75
Ate tuna (Canned fish) 11.0 (3.4) 10.8 (2.6) 0.85 10.5 (2.9) 10.5 (2.6) 0.99 0.82
Ate salt fish (Pickled mackerel) 10.8 (3.0) 11.0 (2.6) 0.77 10.7 (2.7) 8.9 (1.8) 0.054 0.94
Ate shellfish (Lobsters, crabs) 11.5 (2.3) 10.8 (2.9) 0.57 10.7 (2.2) 10.5 (2.8) 0.82 0.88
Ate shrimp 11.0 (3.6) 10.9 (2.7) 0.83 11.1 (2.5) 10.3 (2.8) 0.25 0.58
Grain consumption Rice 10.8 (2.8) 12.8 (5.4) 0.25 10.5 (2.7) NR NR 0.27
Fried dumpling 11.0 (2.8) 10.6 (3.2) 0.63 10.5 (2.7) 9.9 (3.0) 0.50 0.30
Boiled dumpling 11.1 (3.0) 10.7 (2.6) 0.61 10.6 (2.7) 7.6 (1.1) 0.12 0.64
White bread 10.8 (2.6) 10.9 (3.2) 0.85 10.6 (2.8) 10.0 (2.5) 0.34 0.93
Whole wheat bread 10.8 (3.0) 11.0 (2.7) 0.80 10.1 (2.5) 11.1 (2.9) 0.09 0.34
Cakes/buns 10.7 (2.8) 11.7 (3.2) 0.21 10.8 (2.7) 9.6 (3.4) 0.65 0.20
Porridge (cornmeal, oatmeal) 10.9 (3.0) 11.0 (2.5) 0.82 10.5 (2.7) 9.5 (0.8) 0.54 0.60
Cereal 10.6 (2.5) 11.8 (3.7) 0.053 10.5 (2.7) 9.5 (3.8) 0.29 0.49
  1. *The “Yes” column includes subjects who met the category specified in front of each exposure variable.
  2. **The “No” column includes subjects who did not meet the category specified in front of each exposure variable.
  3. *** P-value is for testing associations of exposure variables with BMC among all children combined.
  4. NR = Not reported because all children in the TD control group reported eating rice.
  5. Note: All missing data are the same as those reported in the footnote of Table 2.