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Table 5 Unadjusted and adjusted matched odds ratios (MOR) for assessing associations between ASD status and quartiles of blood manganese concentrations (BMC) based on the CLR models for 109 ASD cases and their 1:1 matched TD controls

From: Blood manganese concentrations in Jamaican children with and without autism spectrum disorders

  Quartile n MOR (95% CI) P-value
Unadjusted Q1 (1 μg/L – 8.9 μg/L) 56 Ref. --
Q2 (9.0 μg/L – 10.0 μg/L) 64 0.71 (0.32, 1.61) 0.42
Q3 (10.0 μg/L – 12.0 μg/L) 54 1.05 (0.46, 2.40) 0.91
Q4 (>12. μg/L) 44 0.49 (0.21, 1.15) 0.10
Adjusteda Q1 (1 μg/L – 8.9 μg/L) 56 Ref. --
Q2 (9.0 μg/L – 10.0 μg/L) 64 3.82 (0.67, 21.91) 0.13
Q3 (10.0 μg/L – 12.0 μg/L) 54 1.48 (0.35, 6.27) 0.60
Q4 (>12.0 μg/L) 44 2.43 (0.43, 13.59) 0.31
  1. aFactors adjusted for include: paternal age, parental education, place of child’s birth (Kingston parish vs. other parishes), consumption of root vegetables (“yam, sweet potato, or dasheen”), “cabbage”, salt water fish, and cakes/buns.
  2. Ref. = Referent category for all matched odds ratios is the lowest quartile of blood manganese concentrations.