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Table 2 Characteristics of 2,110 index pregnancies, by PCE exposure during the LMP year and occurrence of ischemic placental disease a

From: Prenatal drinking-water exposure to tetrachloroethylene and ischemic placental disease: a retrospective cohort study

Characteristic   Ischemic placental disease   No ischemic placental disease
% Exposed (N = 92) % Unexposed (N = 104) % Exposed (N = 999) % Unexposed (N = 915)
Year of pregnancyb     
  Before 1974 15.2 21.2 15.7 18.3
  1975-1980 51.1 44.2 49.8 49.4
  After 1980 33.7 34.6 34.5 32.4
Maternal age (y)c, mean (SD) 26.2 (4.3) 26.6 (4.4) 27.5 (4.5) 27.0 (4.6)
Paternal age (y), mean (SD) 29.5 (5.8) 29.5 (5.5) 30.7 (5.6) 29.9 (5.6)
White 91.3 95.2 95.7 97.4
Maternal educationb     
  Less than high school 3.3 1.9 1.1 1.1
  High school graduate 22.8 25.0 19.2 18.4
  Some college 32.6 35.6 33.9 34.8
  Four-year college graduate or more 41.3 37.5 45.8 45.8
Paternal occupationb     
  White collar 40.2 39.4 53.7 46.0
  Blue collar 34.8 42.3 31.6 32.0
  Other 21.7 15.4 13.2 20.4
Number of prior livebirths and prior ischemic placental diseaseb     
  Nulliparous 43.5 58.7 35.5 41.0
  Previous pregnancy, no prior ischemic placental disease 45.7 35.6 60.1 56.7
  Previous pregnancy, prior ischemic placental disease 10.9 5.8 4.4 2.3
Diabetes before or during pregnancy 1.1 4.8 2.3 2.2
Hypertension before or during pregnancy 10.9 18.3 5.2 5.8
Gestational weight gain <20 lb 30.4 21.2 13.8 12.4
Cigarette smoking during first trimester 41.3 36.5 24.8 27.2
Alcohol consumption during first trimester 32.6 40.4 37.2 37.6
Occupational exposure to solventsb     
  No 76.1 86.5 86.3 87.2
  Yes, before or during pregnancy 17.4 11.5 10.9 9.8
  Yes, unknown when 2.2 1.0 1.7 1.3
Use of solvent-based spot removers 63.0 57.7 67.3 64.0
Use of professional dry cleaning 82.6 86.5 87.7 85.8
Use of self-service dry cleaning 21.7 13.5 13.8 16.7
  1. Abbreviations: LMP last menstrual period, PCE tetrachloroethylene, SD standard deviation.
  2. aIncluding placental abruption, preeclampsia, small for gestational age, and stillbirth at ≥27 weeks gestation.
  3. bPercentages do not sum to 100 due to rounding or missing values.
  4. cMissing: paternal age (N = 18), paternal occupation (N = 35), diabetes (N = 20), hypertension (N = 23), gestational weight gain <20 lb (N = 62), alcohol consumption (N = 4), occupational exposure to solvents (N = 31), use of spot removers (N = 40), use professional dry cleaning (N = 79), use of self-service dry cleaning (N = 56).