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Table 1 Distribution of participant characteristics by sex: overall and by site location

From: Distribution of metals exposure and associations with cardiometabolic risk factors in the “Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study”

  Overall U.S.A. South Africa Ghana Jamaica Seychelles  
  Mean ± SD (or %) Mean ± SD (or %) Mean ± SD (or %) Mean ± SD (or %) Mean ± SD (or %) Mean ± SD (or %) p-value*
Male N = 74 N = 10 N = 15 N = 10 N = 24 N = 15  
Age (years) 34.7 ± 6.0 34.8 ± 6.4 33.7 ± 6.0 36.5 ± 6.4 34.5 ± 6.4 34.6 ± 5.3 0.9
Education (years) 11.2 ± 2.2 12.7 ± 1.4 10.3 ± 1.9 9.2 ± 2.4 11.1 ± 1.9 12.8 ± 1.7 <0.0001
Weight (kg) 74.0 ± 17.2 89.1 ± 20.2 64.1 ± 16.4 59.3 ± 6.0 75.4 ± 12.9 81.2 ± 15.3 <0.0001
Height (cm) 172.8 ± 7.4 171.5 ± 4.3 166.4 ± 6.1 170.3 ± 6.4 177.7 ± 6.5 173.9 ± 7.2 <0.0001
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 24.7 ± 5.4 30.4 ± 7.2 22.9 ± 4.5 20.5 ± 2.2 23.9 ± 4.1 26.9 ± 4.9 <0.0001
Waist circumference (cm) 83.2 ± 13.5 93.5 ± 20.6 79.3 ± 12.3 74.2 ± 5.4 81.8 ± 10.6 88.8 ± 11.5 0.004
Fat Mass (kg) 20.2 ± 11.1 31.5 ± 13.6 18.7 ± 9.7 10.1 ± 5.7 19.4 ± 8.5 22.4 ± 10.9 <0.0001
Percent Body Fat (%) 25.9 ± 9.2 34.0 ± 7.8 27.7 ± 8.1 16.8 ± 8.9 24.8 ± 8.2 26.4 ± 8.0 <0.0001
Overweight (BMI ≥25) 40.5 70.0 26.7 10.0 37.5 60.0 0.02
Obese (BMI ≥30) 14.9 60.0 6.7 0.0 4.2 20.0 <0.0001
Employed 74.3 60.0 26.7 90.0 87.5 100.0 <0.0001
Married (or Living as Married) 51.4 40.0 40.0 90.0 37.5 66.7 0.03
Smoking (ever) 37.8 40.0 66.7 0.0 33.3 40.0 0.02
Alcohol (≥12 drinks/year) 68.9 60.0 40.0 40.0 83.3 100.0 <0.0001
Fish Intake (≥1 serving/day) 55.4 20.0 20.0 80.0 62.5 86.7 0.0001
Physical Activity (<21.5 min/day) 60.8 80.0 33.3 50.0 70.8 66.7 0.09
Female N = 76 N = 20 N = 15 N = 20 N = 6 N = 15  
Age (years) 35.2 ± 6.2 37.1 ± 5.9 33.7 ± 6.8 33.2 ± 6.5 37.2 ± 4.6 36.0 ± 5.8 0.2
Education (years) 11.0 ± 4.3 14.1 ± 2.4 9.7 ± 3.4 6.9 ± 3.5 10.3 ± 1.8 14.0 ± 3.7 <0.0001
Weight (kg) 74.8 ± 20.5 77.7 ± 19.0 81.6 ± 24.3 67.8 ± 16.1 91.2 ± 32.2 67.1 ± 12.3 0.03
Height (cm) 161.5 ± 7.5 164.3 ± 8.8 160.1 ± 5.9 157.5 ± 7.2 165.8 ± 8.3 162.8 ± 4.8 0.02
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 28.7 ± 7.5 28.6 ± 5.3 31.9 ± 9.5 27.3 ± 6.5 33.3 ± 12.1 25.4 ± 5.2 0.07
Waist circumference (cm) 90.4 ± 14.9 90.9 ± 14.7 95.7 ± 15.3 88.5 ± 13.3 101.1 ± 21.2 82.6 ± 10.2 0.05
Fat Mass (kg) 30.5 ± 13.8 32.3 ± 11.5 37.7 ± 15.5 25.3 ± 12.0 39.0 ± 21.7 24.6 ± 8.5 0.01
Percent Body Fat (%) 39.4 ± 8.7 40.9 ± 6.8 45.1 ± 6.9 35.9 ± 10.3 40.4 ± 10.3 35.8 ± 6.8 0.009
Overweight (BMI ≥25) 57.9 50.0 80.0 45.0 83.3 53.3 0.2
Obese (BMI ≥30) 43.4 50.0 46.7 45.0 50.0 26.7 0.7
Employed 52.6 60.0 6.7 50.0 33.3 100.0 <0.0001
Married (or Living as Married) 47.4 20.0 53.3 65.0 50.0 53.3 0.06
Smoking (ever) 15.8 40.0 6.7 0.0 33.3 6.7 0.002
Alcohol (≥12 drinks/year) 42.1 55.0 20.0 35.0 66.7 46.7 0.2
Fish Intake (≥1 serving/day) 51.3 40.0 13.3 75.0 33.3 80.0 0.0002
Physical Activity (<21.5 min/day) 84.2 90.0 93.3 80.0 83.3 73.3 0.6
  1. *p-value from analysis of variation by site.