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Table 3 Geometric mean (95% confidence interval) blood metals concentrations by participant characteristics

From: Distribution of metals exposure and associations with cardiometabolic risk factors in the “Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study”

   Lead (μg/dL)   Cadmium (μg/L)   Arsenic (μg/L)   Mercury (μg/L)  
Variable N (%) GM (95% CI) p-value GM (95% CI) p-value GM (95% CI) p-value GM (95% CI) p-value
Site Location          
U.S.A. 30 (20) 0.80 (0.61, 1.05) <0.00001 0.15 (0.07, 0.31) <0.00001 3.97 (3.62, 4.35) <0.00001 0.07 (0.03, 0.20) <0.00001
South Africa 30 (20) 1.45 (1.22, 1.74)   0.00 (0.00, 0.01)   5.65 (5.18, 6.16)   0.05 (0.02, 0.15)  
Ghana 30 (20) 3.12 (1.53, 6.38)   0.00 (0.00, 0.01)   11.17 (9.69, 12.87)   1.56 (1.01, 2.42)  
Jamaica 30 (20) 0.96 (0.77, 1.19)   0.01 (0.00, 0.04)   9.24 (8.37, 10.19)   2.43 (1.82, 3.25)  
Seychelles 30 (20) 2.56 (2.26, 2.90)   0.47 (0.21, 1.06)   16.29 (14.93, 17.77)   28.47 (23.03, 35.18)  
Age group          
<35 years 72 (48) 1.46 (1.07, 1.99) 0.64 0.02 (0.01, 0.04) 0.09 8.13 (7.17, 9.22) 0.53 0.81 (0.41, 1.61) 0.22
≥35 years 78 (52) 1.64 (1.35, 1.99)   0.04 (0.02, 0.07)   8.32 (7.26, 9.53)   0.88 (0.44, 1.75)  
Sex          
Male 74 (49) 1.68 (1.41, 2.00) 0.35 0.03 (0.02, 0.06) 0.43 8.94 (7.93, 10.07) 0.21 1.61 (0.88, 2.94) 0.13
Female 76 (51) 1.44 (1.05, 1.96)   0.02 (0.01, 0.05)   7.59 (6.59, 8.73)   0.45 (0.22, 0.94)  
Marital Status          
Married/living as married 74 (49) 1.97 (1.57, 2.48) 0.02 0.02 (0.01, 0.04) 0.38 9.48 (8.39, 10.71) 0.007 1.40 (0.74, 2.65) 0.08
Not married* 76 (51) 1.22 (0.94, 1.60)   0.03 (0.02, 0.06)   7.17 (6.28, 8.18)   0.52 (0.25, 1.06)  
Education          
≤11 years 83 (55) 1.84 (1.39, 2.44) 0.03 0.01 (0.01, 0.02) 0.03 9.09 (8.20, 10.09) 0.23 0.90 (0.51, 1.60) 0.004
>11 years 67 (45) 1.25 (1.03, 1.52)   0.07 (0.04, 0.14)   7.27 (6.20, 8.52)   0.78 (0.35, 1.78)  
Paid Employment (past month)          
Yes 95 (63) 1.71 (1.42, 2.06) 0.81 0.05 (0.03, 0.09) <0.00001 9.63 (8.60, 10.79) <0.00001 2.24 (1.33, 3.80) <0.00001
No 55 (37) 1.31 (0.90, 1.90)   0.01 (0.00, 0.02)   6.26 (5.48, 7.15)   0.16 (0.07, 0.34)  
Employment type          
Non-manual labor 37 (25) 1.07 (0.78, 1.45) 0.12 0.10 (0.04, 0.22) 0.22 7.18 (5.67, 9.09) 0.38 0.76 (0.25, 2.32) 0.22
Skilled manual labor 16 (11) 1.39 (1.03, 1.88)   0.03 (0.01, 0.13)   7.73 (6.08, 9.81)   0.63 (0.13, 3.12)  
Unskilled manual labor 92 (61) 1.87 (1.45, 2.41)   0.02 (0.01, 0.03)   9.02 (8.12, 10.03)   1.10 (0.63, 1.93)  
Missing 5 (3) 1.01 (0.45, 2.31)   0.02 (0.00, 0.35)   5.01 (2.77, 9.09)   0.04 (0.00, 2.76)  
Cigarette smoking          
Smoker (≥1/day for year) 27 (18) 1.58 (1.28, 1.96) 0.67 0.13 (0.04, 0.37) 0.0008 6.34 (5.12, 7.85) 0.03 0.20 (0.06, 0.74) 0.05
Occasional smoker 8 (5) 2.22 (1.59, 3.10)   0.05 (0.00, 1.30)   12.09 (8.03, 18.20)   5.96 (0.56, 63.89)  
Ex-smoker (for at least 1 year) 5 (3) 1.61 (0.61, 4.26)   0.01 (0.00, 0.27)   8.79 (5.68, 13.60)   2.21 (0.23, 21.52)  
Never-smoker 110 (73) 1.50 (1.18, 1.90)   0.02 (0.01, 0.03)   8.50 (7.63, 9.47)   1.00 (0.59, 1.71)  
Alcohol Use (≥12 drinks/year)          
Yes 83 (55) 1.42 (1.10, 1.84) 0.06 0.05 (0.03, 0.09) 0.002 8.94 (7.88, 10.15) 0.031 1.59 (0.84, 3.01) 0.006
No/Missing 67 (45) 1.72 (1.34, 2.22)   0.01 (0.01, 0.02)   7.41 (6.49, 8.47)   0.39 (0.19, 0.78)  
Fish Intake (≥1 serving/day)          
Yes 80 (53.3) 2.13 (1.72, 2.65) 0.003 0.46 (0.02, 0.09) 0.0009 10.59 (9.40, 11.93) <0.00001 2.85 (1.72, 4.72) 0.0002
No 70 (46.7) 1.07 (0.82, 1.41)   0.01 (0.01, 0.03)   6.16 (5.52, 6.88)   0.21 (0.10, 0.44)  
Physical Activity          
<21.5 mins/day 109 (73) 1.39 (1.11, 1.75) 0.62 0.03 (0.02, 0.05) 0.98 7.87 (7.02, 8.82) 0.36 0.79 (0.44, 1.41) 0.68
≥21.5 mins/day 41 (27) 2.06 (1.61, 2.64)   0.03 (0.01, 0.06)   9.25 (7.98, 10.73)   1.02 (0.44, 2.40)  
Weight group          
Underweight, BMI < 18.5 6 (4) 1.83 (1.21, 2.77) 0.61 0.00 (0.00, 0.01) 0.47 8.06 (5.02, 12.92) 0.11 0.39 (0.00, 31.81) 0.04
Normal weight, BMI 18.5 to <25 70 (47) 1.62 (1.17, 2.26)   0.03 (0.02, 0.06)   8.74 (7.62, 10.01)   0.91 (0.48, 1.75)  
Overweight, BMI ≥25 to <30 30 (20) 1.67 (1.24, 2.24)   0.01 (0.00, 0.05)   9.55 (7.91, 11.53)   2.38 (0.86, 6.59)  
Obese, BMI ≥30 44 (29) 1.34 (1.04, 1.73)   0.04 (0.02, 0.09)   6.77 (5.66, 8.10)   0.41 (0.16, 1.09)  
  1. *Not married includes: widowed, divorced, separated, and never married.