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Table 4 Unadjusted associations between metals exposures and cardiometabolic risk factors

From: Distribution of metals exposure and associations with cardiometabolic risk factors in the “Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study”

   Lead (μg/dL)   Cadmium (μg/L)   Arsenic (μg/L)   Mercury (μg/L)  
Cardiometabolic risk factor N (%) GM (95% CI) p-value GM (95% CI) p-value GM (95% CI) p-value GM (95% CI) p-value
Overweight, BMI ≥25          
Yes 74 (49.3) 1.46 (1.21, 1.77) 0.53 0.03 (0.01, 0.05) 0.84 7.78 (6.80, 8.90) 0.24 0.84 (0.41, 1.73) 0.98
No 76 (50.7) 1.64 (1.21, 2.22)   0.03 (0.01, 0.05)   8.68 (7.64, 9.87)   0.85 (0.44, 1.64)  
Obese, BMI ≥30          
Yes 44 (29.3) 1.34 (1.04, 1.73) 0.31 0.04 (0.02, 0.09) 0.18 6.77 (5.66, 8.10) 0.008 0.41 (0.16, 1.09) 0.06
No 106 (70.7) 1.65 (1.31, 2.08)   0.02 (0.01, 0.04)   8.92 (8.03, 9.90)   1.14 (0.66, 1.97)  
Waist Circumference ≥94 cm (males) or ≥80 cm (females)          
Yes 74 (49.3) 1.49 (1.21, 1.84) 0.69 0.03 (0.02, 0.07) 0.31 7.35 (6.40, 8.44) 0.02 0.55 (0.26, 1.18) 0.08
No 76 (50.7) 1.61 (1.20, 2.15)   0.02 (0.01, 0.04)   9.18 (8.15, 10.34)   1.29 (0.72, 2.32)  
Glucose ≥100 mg/dL (fasting)          
Yes 51 (34.0) 2.30 (1.78, 2.98) 0.002 0.06 (0.03, 0.14) 0.009 9.70 (8.19, 11.48) 0.01 1.62 (0.70, 3.76) 0.06
No 99 (66.0) 1.26 (1.01, 1.59)   0.02 (0.01, 0.03)   7.56 (6.79, 8.41)   0.61 (0.34, 1.08)  
LDL cholesterol ≥2.59 mmol/L          
Yes 101 (67.3) 1.51 (1.28, 1.77) 0.66 0.03 (0.02, 0.06) 0.11 8.42 (7.56, 9.38) 0.47 1.25 (0.71, 2.21) 0.02
No 49 (32.7) 1.64 (1.05, 2.56)   0.02 (0.01, 0.03)   7.84 (6.56, 9.36)   0.38 (0.16, 0.90)  
Triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/L          
Yes 45 (30.0) 1.14 (0.90, 1.46) 0.05 0.02 (0.01, 0.04) 0.37 8.43 (7.33, 9.68) 0.73 1.13 (0.59, 2.17) 0.44
No 105 (70.0) 1.76 (1.40, 2.23)   0.03 (0.02, 0.05)   8.14 (7.23, 9.17)   0.75 (0.40, 1.41)  
HDL cholesterol <1.03 (males) or <1.29 (females) mmol/L          
Yes 47 (31.3) 1.69 (1.06, 2.71) 0.51 0.01 (0.01, 0.03) 0.06 8.27 (6.83, 10.00) 0.94 0.39 (0.16, 0.97) 0.04
No 103 (68.7) 1.49 (1.27, 1.74)   0.04 (0.02, 0.06)   8.21 (7.39, 9.11)   1.20 (0.69, 2.10)  
Triglyceride/HDL ratio >3.5 (males) or >2.5 (females)          
Yes 55 (36.7) 1.41 (1.17, 1.71) 0.44 0.04 (0.02, 0.08) 0.27 10.69 (9.55, 11.97) <0.00001 4.49 (2.78, 7.26) <0.00001
No 95 (63.3) 1.64 (1.26, 2.13)   0.02 (0.01, 0.04)   7.07 (6.26, 7.97)   0.32 (0.17, 0.61)  
C-reactive protein ≥10 mg/L          
Yes 43 (28.7) 1.14 (0.93, 1.40) 0.06 0.01 (0.01, 0.03) 0.03 8.79 (7.78, 9.92) 0.37 1.30 (0.66, 2.54) 0.27
No 107 (71.3) 1.75 (1.38, 2.21)   0.04 (0.02, 0.06)   8.01 (7.10, 9.03)   0.71 (0.38, 1.32)  
Systolic ≥130 mmHg          
Yes 24 (16.0) 1.56 (1.24, 1.96) 0.97 0.04 (0.01, 0.16) 0.40 7.08 (5.44, 9.21) 0.16 0.76 (0.22, 2.64) 0.85
No 126 (84.0) 1.55 (1.25, 1.91)   0.02 (0.02, 0.04)   8.46 (7.67, 9.34)   0.86 (0.51, 1.46)  
Diastolic ≥85 mmHg          
Yes 23 (15.3) 1.69 (1.23, 2.32) 0.68 0.03 (0.01, 0.14) 0.63 6.26 (4.80, 8.16) 0.02 0.49 (0.14, 1.77) 0.35
No 127 (84.7) 1.53 (1.24, 1.87)   0.03 (0.02, 0.04)   8.64 (7.85, 9.52)   0.93 (0.55, 1.57)