Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 5 Adjusted* associations between metals (dichotomized at median) and cardiometabolic risk factors

From: Distribution of metals exposure and associations with cardiometabolic risk factors in the “Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study”

   Lead (>1.66 μg/dL) Cadmium (>0.008 μg/L) Arsenic (>8.48 μg/L) Mercury (>1.49 μg/L)
   Core model Fully-adjusted Core model Fully-adjusted Core model Fully-adjusted Core model Fully-adjusted
Cardiometabolic risk factor N (%) OR (95% CI)* OR (95% CI)** OR (95% CI)* OR (95% CI)** OR (95% CI)* OR (95% CI)** OR (95% CI)* OR (95% CI)**
Overweight, BMI ≥25 74 (49.3) 0.51 (0.24, 1.08) 0.60 (0.27, 1.36) 0.84 (0.43, 1.64) 0.71 (0.33, 1.52) 0.27 (0.10, 0.77) 0.27 (0.09, 0.81) 1.68 (0.61, 4.63) 1.73 (0.61, 4.91)
Obese, BMI ≥30 44 (29.3) 1.06 (0.45, 2.51) 1.54 (0.58, 4.11) 1.81 (0.83, 3.94) 1.89 (0.78, 4.61) 0.76 (0.24, 2.38) 0.86 (0.24, 3.07) 1.98 (0.61, 6.40) 1.98 (0.58, 6.74)
Waist Circumference ≥94 (males), ≥80 (females) cm 74 (49.3) 0.87 (0.37, 2.09) 1.40 (0.51, 3.83) 1.61 (0.72, 3.62) 2.00 (0.76, 5.27) 0.47 (0.15, 1.50) 0.54 (0.15, 1.95) 1.51 (0.46, 4.99) 1.47 (0.43, 5.00)
Glucose ≥100 mg/dL (fasting) 51 (34.0) 3.25 (1.48, 7.12) 3.95 (1.63, 9.58) 2.08 (1.03, 4.21) 1.69 (0.77, 3.68) 2.97 (1.03, 8.57) 4.10 (1.15, 14.59) 1.96 (0.68, 5.67) 1.96 (0.64, 5.98)
LDL cholesterol ≥2.59 mmol/L 101 (67.3) 0.64 (0.29, 1.39) 0.68 (0.29, 1.60) 1.38 (0.67, 2.82) 0.86 (0.37, 1.97) 0.46 (0.16, 1.36) 0.39 (0.12, 1.28) 2.09 (0.73, 5.99) 1.76 (0.59, 5.18)
Triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/L 45 (30.0) 0.12 (0.05, 0.31) 0.09 (0.03, 0.25) 0.40 (0.18, 0.86) 0.39 (0.16, 0.95) 0.57 (0.20, 1.63) 0.52 (0.17, 1.61) 1.34 (0.45, 4.02) 1.17 (0.36, 3.77)
HDL cholesterol <1.03 (males), <1.29 (females) mmol/L 47 (31.3) 2.36 (1.00, 5.58) 1.93 (0.74, 5.02) 0.62 (0.30, 1.31) 0.64 (0.28, 1.50) 7.15 (1.99, 25.70) 5.85 (1.48, 23.07) 0.45 (0.14, 1.43) 0.51 (0.16, 1.65)
Triglyceride/HDL ratio >3.5 (males), >2.5 (females) 55 (36.7) 0.14 (0.05, 0.44) 0.14 (0.04, 0.48) 0.43 (0.16, 1.15) 0.53 (0.18, 1.55) 0.49 (0.16, 1.52) 0.56 (0.16, 1.94) 1.28 (0.39, 4.25) 1.15 (0.31, 4.32)
C-reactive protein ≥10 mg/L 43 (28.7) 0.15 (0.06, 0.39) 0.13 (0.04, 0.36) 0.20 (0.08, 0.49) 0.28 (0.10, 0.75) 0.38 (0.13, 1.12) 0.45 (0.14, 1.44) 1.21 (0.39, 3.74) 1.14 (0.33, 3.98)
Systolic ≥130 mmHg 24 (16.0) 1.50 (0.56, 4.03) 1.69 (0.55, 5.15) 1.12 (0.546 2.76) 0.85 (0.30, 2.38) 0.36 (0.09, 1.39) 0.38 (0.08, 1.81) 2.21 (0.54, 9.04) 2.73 (0.56, 13.18)
Diastolic ≥85 mmHg 23 (15.3) 2.07 (0.69, 6.22) 2.20 (0.59, 8.16) 0.76 (0.29, 2.00) 0.46 (0.15, 1.41) 0.21 (0.05, 0.97) 0.16 (0.03, 0.90) 2.24 (0.47, 10.71) 3.50 (0.59, 20.68)
  1. *Adjusted for age, sex, site location.
  2. **Adjusted for age, sex, site location, marital status, education, paid employment, smoking, alcohol use, and fish intake.