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Table 6 Adjusted* associations between metals (dichotomized at median) and cardiometabolic risk factors, controlling for percent body fat (%BF)

From: Distribution of metals exposure and associations with cardiometabolic risk factors in the “Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study”

   Lead (>1.66 μg/dL) Cadmium (>0.008 μg/L) Arsenic (>8.48 μg/L) Mercury (>1.49 μg/L)
   Core model plus %BF Fully-adjusted plus %BF Core model plus %BF Fully-adjusted plus %BF Core model plus %BF Fully-adjusted plus %BF Core model plus %BF Fully-adjusted plus %BF
Cardiometabolic risk factor N (%) OR (95% CI)* OR (95% CI)** OR (95% CI)* OR (95% CI)** OR (95% CI)* OR (95% CI)** OR (95% CI)* OR (95% CI)**
Overweight, BMI ≥25 74 (49.3) 0.90 (0.34, 2.40) 0.88 (0.31, 2.51) 0.55 (0.23, 1.33) 0.44 (0.17, 1.15) 0.48 (0.12, 1.87) 0.36 (0.08, 1.61) 3.35 (0.82, 13.67) 3.24 (0.80, 13.12)
Obese, BMI ≥30 44 (29.3) 2.33 (0.73, 7.43) 2.70 (0.75, 9.75) 2.04 (0.78, 5.33) 1.99 (0.64, 6.12) 1.68 (0.37, 7.72) 1.43 (0.28, 7.23) 3.37 (0.67, 16.86) 4.18 (0.82, 21.31)
Waist Circumference ≥94 cm (males) or ≥80 cm (females) 74 (49.3) 2.23 (0.68, 7.24) 4.53 (1.06, 19.48) 1.09 (0.40, 2.95) 1.40 (0.45, 4.42) 1.19 (0.25, 5.60) 2.39 (0.38, 15.11) 2.91 (0.55, 15.40) 2.76 (0.52, 14.76)
Glucose ≥100 mg/dL (fasting) 51 (34.0) 4.82 (2.01, 11.53) 4.99 (1.97, 12.69) 2.01 (0.98, 4.13) 1.60 (0.72, 3.56) 4.81 (1.48, 15.58) 5.62 (1.49, 21.19) 2.12 (0.71, 6.33) 2.10 (0.66, 6.64)
LDL cholesterol ≥2.59 mmol/L 101 (67.3) 0.78 (0.35, 1.76) 0.77 (0.32, 1.86) 1.25 (0.60, 2.62) 0.75 (0.32, 1.76) 0.64 (0.21, 1.94) 0.50 (0.15, 1.71) 2.15 (0.73, 6.33) 1.78 (0.58, 5.51)
Triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/L 45 (30.0) 0.12 (0.05, 0.32) 0.09 (0.03, 0.26) 0.38 (0.17, 0.83) 0.36 (0.15, 0.90) 0.63 (0.22, 1.84) 0.58 (0.18, 1.84) 1.37 (0.45, 4.14) 1.22 (0.38, 3.93)
HDL cholesterol <1.03 (males) or <1.29 (females) mmol/L 47 (31.3) 2.64 (1.08, 6.50) 2.10 (0.79, 5.61) 0.60 (0.29, 1.2) 0.61 (0.26, 1.44) 9.81 (2.41, 39.88) 8.02 (1.84, 35.01) 0.44 (0.14, 1.41) 0.50 (0.15, 1.63)
Triglyceride/HDL ratio >3.5 (males) or >2.5 (females) 55 (36.7) 0.14 (0.04, 0.43) 0.15 (0.04, 0.51) 0.42 (0.16, 1.13) 0.53 (0.18, 1.53) 0.51 (0.6, 1.62) 0.61 (0.17, 2.15) 1.31 (0.39, 4.36) 1.19 (0.32, 4.49)
C-reactive protein ≥10 mg/L 43 (28.7) 0.15 (0.06, 0.39) 0.13 (0.05, 0.38) 0.19 (0.08, 0.47) 0.27 (0.10, 0.73) 0.38 (0.12, 1.17) 0.50 (0.16, 1.62) 1.22 (0.39, 3.79) 1.14 (0.33, 3.96)
Systolic ≥130 mmHg 24 (16.0) 1.67 (0.60, 4.64) 1.77 (0.57, 5.45) 1.10 (0.45, 2.70) 0.80 (0.28, 2.28) 0.38 (0.10, 1.48) 0.38 (0.08, 1.82) 2.27 (0.55, 9.38) 2.79 (0.57, 13.68)
Diastolic ≥85 mmHg 23 (15.3) 2.35 (0.75, 7.37) 2.37 (0.62, 9.07) 0.74 (0.28, 1.96) 0.39 (0.12, 1.26) 0.22 (0.05, 1.00) 0.15 (0.03, 0.91) 2.30 (0.47, 11.15) 4.22 (0.67, 26.39)
  1. *Adjusted for age, sex, site location, and percent body fat (%BF).
  2. **Adjusted for age, sex, site location, marital status, education, paid employment, smoking, alcohol use, fish intake, and percent body fat (%BF).