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Table 2 Maternal residential proximity to air emissions of chlorinated solvents and neural tube defects, Texas, 1996-2008

From: Maternal residential proximity to chlorinated solvent emissions and birth defects in offspring: a case–control study

Type of chlorinated solvent Exposure risk value >0 a
Controls Neural tube defect cases Adjusted odds ratiob(95% CI) Anencephaly cases Adjusted odds ratiob(95% CI) Spina bifida cases Adjusted odds ratiob(95% CI)
n % n % n % n %
Any type 63599 26.2 619 28.4 0.98 (0.88, 1.09) 173 29.3 1.04 (0.84, 1.27) 371 28.3 0.97 (0.85, 1.11)
Carbon tetrachloride 4568 1.9 62 2.8 1.42 (1.09, 1.86) 13 2.2 1.18 (0.66, 2.10) 44 3.4 1.58 (1.15, 2.19)
Chloroform 3985 1.6 52 2.4 1.40 (1.04, 1.87) 10 1.7 1.09 (0.57, 2.09) 37 2.8 1.55 (1.10, 2.20)
1,1-dichloroethane 1847 0.8 24 1.1 1.36 (0.90, 2.05) 5 0.8 1.13 (0.46, 2.77) 19 1.4 1.70 (1.06, 2.71)
1,2-dichloroethane 6637 2.7 85 3.9 1.28 (1.01, 1.62) 13 2.2 0.69 (0.39, 1.23) 65 5.0 1.64 (1.24, 2.16)
1,2-dichloroethylene 2026 0.8 25 1.1 1.26 (0.84, 1.89) 5 0.8 0.99 (0.40, 2.44) 20 1.5 1.60 (1.01, 2.53)
Ethyl chloride 5271 2.2 70 3.2 1.39 (1.08, 1.79) 16 2.7 1.28 (0.76, 2.15) 50 3.8 1.59 (1.18, 2.14)
Methyl chloroform 5294 2.2 79 3.6 1.29 (1.01, 1.63) 15 2.5 0.85 (0.50, 1.44) 57 4.3 1.56 (1.18, 2.07)
Methylene chloride 38448 15.9 401 18.4 1.03 (0.91, 1.16) 109 18.4 1.03 (0.82, 1.30) 240 18.3 1.02 (0.87, 1.18)
Perchloroethylene 29854 12.3 277 12.7 0.92 (0.81, 1.06) 78 13.2 0.95 (0.73, 1.22) 162 12.3 0.90 (0.75, 1.07)
Propylene dichloride 1518 0.6 16 0.7 1.15 (0.70, 1.90) 1 0.2 c 14 1.1 1.58 (0.92, 2.72)
Tetrachloroethane 1955 0.8 23 1.1 1.31 (0.86, 2.00) 3 0.5 c 20 1.5 1.78 (1.12, 2.82)
1,1,2-trichloroethane 2561 1.1 38 1.7 1.56 (1.11, 2.18) 6 1.0 0.97 (0.42, 2.21) 30 2.3 1.94 (1.32, 2.84)
Trichloroethylene 28547 11.8 274 12.6 0.95 (0.83, 1.09) 78 13.2 0.99 (0.76, 1.29) 163 12.4 0.94 (0.79, 1.12)
1,2,3-trichloropropane 2847 1.2 41 1.9 1.49 (1.08, 2.06) 8 1.4 1.15 (0.56, 2.36) 31 2.4 1.78 (1.22, 2.59)
  1. aExposure risk value based on residential proximity to source(s) of air emissions and estimated pounds of chemical emitted annually.
  2. bAdjusted for birth year and maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, and public health region of residence (referent group: exposure risk value = 0).
  3. cOdds ratios and respective 95% confidence intervals are not reported for analyses with less than five exposed cases.