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Table 3 Maternal residential proximity to air emissions of chlorinated solvents and isolated oral cleft defects, Texas, 1996-2008

From: Maternal residential proximity to chlorinated solvent emissions and birth defects in offspring: a case–control study

Type of chlorinated solvent Exposure risk value >0 a
Controls Any oral cleft defect Adjusted odds ratiob(95% CI) Cleft palate alone Adjusted odds ratiob(95% CI) Cleft lip with or without cleft palate Adjusted odds ratiob(95% CI)
n % n % n % n %
Any type 63599 26.2 1036 26.8 0.99 (0.91, 1.07) 308 26.5 0.95 (0.82, 1.10) 729 27.0 1.00 (0.91, 1.10)
Carbon tetrachloride 4568 1.9 91 2.4 1.10 (0.88, 1.37) 32 2.8 1.25 (0.86, 1.80) 59 2.2 1.03 (0.79, 1.36)
Chloroform 3985 1.6 79 2.0 1.05 (0.83, 1.33) 25 2.1 1.03 (0.68, 1.56) 54 2.0 1.06 (0.80, 1.40)
1,1-dichloroethane 1847 0.8 33 0.9 1.00 (0.70, 1.42) 13 1.1 1.24 (0.71, 2.16) 20 0.7 0.89 (0.57, 1.40)
1,2-dichloroethane 6637 2.7 119 3.1 0.99 (0.81, 1.20) 45 4.1 1.10 (0.79, 1.54) 78 2.9 0.94 (0.74, 1.20)
1,2-dichloroethylene 2026 0.8 38 1.0 1.04 (0.75, 1.44) 14 1.2 1.19 (0.69, 2.04) 24 0.9 0.97 (0.64, 1.47)
Ethyl chloride 5271 2.2 107 2.8 1.10 (0.90, 1.34) 34 2.9 1.09 (0.77, 1.56) 73 2.7 1.11 (0.87, 1.41)
Methyl chloroform 5294 2.2 105 2.7 1.06 (0.87, 1.30) 30 2.6 0.99 (0.68, 1.45) 75 2.8 1.09 (0.86, 1.39)
Methylene chloride 38448 15.9 672 17.4 1.06 (0.97, 1.16) 193 16.6 0.99 (0.84, 1.17) 480 17.8 1.09 (0.98, 1.21)
Perchloroethylene 29854 12.3 462 12.0 0.98 (0.88, 1.08) 127 10.9 0.88 (0.72, 1.07) 335 12.4 1.02 (0.90, 1.15)
Propylene dichloride 1518 0.6 29 0.8 1.07 (0.74, 1.56) 15 1.3 1.77 (1.05, 2.99) 14 0.5 0.75 (0.44, 1.28)
Tetrachloroethane 1955 0.8 36 0.9 1.05 (0.75, 1.48) 17 1.5 1.61 (0.98, 2.64) 19 0.7 0.81 (0.51, 1.28)
1,1,2-trichloroethane 2561 1.1 54 1.4 1.16 (0.87, 1.53) 22 1.9 1.51 (0.97, 2.34) 32 1.2 1.00 (0.70, 1.43)
Trichloroethylene 28547 11.8 483 12.5 1.02 (0.92, 1.13) 144 12.4 1.00 (0.83, 1.21) 339 12.5 1.02 (0.90, 1.16)
1,2,3-trichloropropane 2847 1.2 61 1.6 1.16 (0.89, 1.51) 24 2.1 1.48 (0.97, 2.25) 37 1.4 1.03 (0.73, 1.44)
  1. aExposure risk value based on residential proximity to source(s) of air emissions and estimated pounds of chemical emitted annually.
  2. bAdjusted for birth year and maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, and public health region of residence (referent group: exposure risk value = 0).