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Table 4 Maternal residential proximity to air emissions of chlorinated solvents and congenital heart defects, Texas, 1996-2008

From: Maternal residential proximity to chlorinated solvent emissions and birth defects in offspring: a case–control study

Type of chlorinated solvent Exposure risk value >0 a
Controls Conotruncal heart defects Adjusted odds ratiob(95% CI) Obstructive heart defects Adjusted odds ratiob(95% CI) Septal heart defects Adjusted odds ratiob(95% CI)
n % n % n % n %
Any type 63599 26.2 941 28.5 1.05 (0.96, 1.14) 912 26.9 1.02 (0.93, 1.11) 11325 26.4 1.06 (1.04, 1.09)
Carbon tetrachloride 4568 1.9 76 2.3 1.09 (0.86, 1.39) 82 2.4 1.16 (0.92, 1.46) 867 2.0 1.13 (1.04, 1.22)
Chloroform 3985 1.6 60 1.8 0.97 (0.74, 1.27) 70 2.1 1.13 (0.88, 1.45) 739 1.7 1.10 (1.01, 1.19)
1,1-dichloroethane 1847 0.8 30 0.9 1.10 (0.76, 1.59) 34 1.0 1.17 (0.83, 1.66) 387 0.9 1.23 (1.10, 1.37)
1,2-dichloroethane 6637 2.7 102 3.1 1.00 (0.81, 1.24) 106 3.1 1.03 (0.83, 1.26) 1184 2.8 1.06 (0.99, 1.13)
1,2-dichloroethylene 2026 0.8 34 1.0 1.13 (0.80, 1.60) 38 1.1 1.20 (0.86, 1.66) 409 1.0 1.19 (1.06, 1.32)
Ethyl chloride 5271 2.2 82 2.5 1.02 (0.81, 1.28) 98 2.9 1.23 (0.99, 1.51) 1002 2.3 1.13 (1.05, 1.21)
Methyl chloroform 5294 2.2 78 2.4 0.97 (0.77, 1.23) 93 2.7 1.14 (0.92, 1.41) 865 2.0 1.01 (0.94, 1.09)
Methylene chloride 38448 15.9 583 17.6 1.04 (0.95, 1.15) 556 16.4 1.02 (0.92, 1.12) 6266 14.6 0.95 (0.92, 0.98)
Perchloroethylene 29854 12.3 426 12.9 1.03 (0.92, 1.15) 413 12.2 1.01 (0.90, 1.12) 5308 12.4 1.02 (0.99, 1.06)
Propylene dichloride 1518 0.6 19 0.6 0.82 (0.52, 1.29) 33 1.0 1.39 (0.98, 1.99) 316 0.7 1.21 (1.07, 1.38)
Tetrachloroethane 1955 0.8 27 0.8 0.93 (0.63, 1.37) 33 1.0 1.09 (0.77, 1.56) 387 0.9 1.14 (1.02, 1.28)
1,1,2-trichloroethane 2561 1.1 40 1.2 1.03 (0.75, 1.42) 48 1.4 1.19 (0.88, 1.59) 487 1.1 1.12 (1.01, 1.24)
Trichloroethylene 28547 11.8 409 12.4 0.98 (0.87, 1.10) 412 12.1 1.03 (0.92, 1.15) 5074 11.8 1.06 (1.02, 1.10)
1,2,3-trichloropropane 2847 1.2 44 1.3 1.01 (0.74, 1.37) 48 1.4 1.06 (0.79, 1.42) 542 1.3 1.13 (1.02, 1.24)
  1. aExposure risk value based on residential proximity to source(s) of air emissions and estimated pounds of chemical emitted annually.
  2. bAdjusted for birth year and maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, and public health region of residence (referent group: exposure risk value = 0).