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Table 5 Maternal residential proximity to air emissions of chlorinated solvents and limb deficiency defects, Texas, 1996-2008

From: Maternal residential proximity to chlorinated solvent emissions and birth defects in offspring: a case–control study

Type of chlorinated solvent Exposure risk value >0 a
Controls Any type of limb deficiency Adjusted odds ratiob(95% CI) Longitudinal limb deficiency Adjusted odds ratiob(95% CI) Transverse limb deficiency Adjusted odds ratiob(95% CI)
n % n % n % n %
Any type 63599 26.2 568 28.7 1.05 (0.94, 1.17) 252 29.3 0.97 (0.82, 1.14) 334 27.7 1.09 (0.94, 1.26)
Carbon tetrachloride 4568 1.9 39 2.0 1.07 (0.77, 1.49) 17 2.0 0.97 (0.59, 1.61) 21 1.7 1.01 (0.64, 1.58)
Chloroform 3985 1.6 37 1.9 1.11 (0.79, 1.57) 16 1.9 1.04 (0.62, 1.74) 20 1.7 1.03 (0.65, 1.63)
1,1-dichloroethane 1847 0.8 14 0.7 1.00 (0.59, 1.71) 7 0.8 1.09 (0.51, 2.32) 7 0.6 0.87 (0.41, 1.85)
1,2-dichloroethane 6637 2.7 52 2.6 0.98 (0.73, 1.32) 24 2.8 0.95 (0.62, 1.46) 29 2.4 0.96 (0.65, 1.42)
1,2-dichloroethylene 2026 0.8 17 0.9 1.09 (0.67, 1.78) 8 0.9 1.11 (0.54, 2.26) 8 0.7 0.89 (0.44, 1.80)
Ethyl chloride 5271 2.2 43 2.2 1.00 (0.73, 1.37) 20 2.3 1.01 (0.64, 1.61) 23 1.9 0.92 (0.60, 1.41)
Methyl chloroform 5294 2.2 46 2.3 0.94 (0.69, 1.27) 23 2.7 0.97 (0.63, 1.48) 23 1.9 0.82 (0.54, 1.26)
Methylene chloride 38448 15.9 361 18.2 1.06 (0.94, 1.20) 164 19.1 1.01 (0.84, 1.22) 204 16.9 1.04 (0.88, 1.23)
Perchloroethylene 29854 12.3 272 13.7 1.10 (0.96, 1.26) 113 13.2 0.95 (0.77, 1.17) 167 13.9 1.21 (1.01, 1.45)
Propylene dichloride 1518 0.6 13 0.7 1.15 (0.66, 2.00) 6 0.7 1.13 (0.50, 2.56) 6 0.5 0.93 (0.41, 2.09)
Tetrachloroethane 1955 0.8 14 0.7 0.99 (0.58, 1.69) 6 0.7 0.93 (0.41, 2.10) 7 0.6 0.86 (0.40, 1.83)
1,1,2-trichloroethane 2561 1.1 18 0.9 0.91 (0.56, 1.46) 8 0.9 0.86 (0.42, 1.75) 9 0.7 0.79 (0.40, 1.54)
Trichloroethylene 28547 11.8 257 13.0 1.01 (0.88, 1.17) 119 13.9 1.00 (0.81, 1.24) 149 12.4 1.04 (0.86, 1.26)
1,2,3-trichloropropane 2847 1.2 24 1.2 1.10 (0.72, 1.67) 11 1.3 1.08 (0.58, 1.99) 12 1.0 0.95 (0.53, 1.71)
  1. aExposure risk value based on residential proximity to source(s) of air emissions and estimated pounds of chemical emitted annually.
  2. bAdjusted for birth year and maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, and public health region of residence (referent group: exposure risk value = 0).