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Table 7 Intensity of maternal residential exposure index for selected chlorinated solvents and isolated cleft palate in offspring

From: Maternal residential proximity to chlorinated solvent emissions and birth defects in offspring: a case–control study

Type of chlorinated solvent Intensity of exposure risk valuea Cleft palate cases Controls Adjusted odds ratiob 95% confidence interval p- value for trend
n % n %
Propylene dichloride 0.00 1148 98.7 240907 99.4 1.00 Referent 0.031
0.01-0.02 5 0.4 508 0.2 1.95 0.80, 4.76
0.03-17.70 3 0.3 506 0.2 1.03 0.33, 3.25
>17.70 7 0.6 504 0.2 2.32 1.09, 4.95
Tetrachloroethane 0.00 1146 98.5 240470 99.2 1.00 Referent 0.010
0.01-0.18 3 0.3 653 0.3 0.90 0.29, 2.82
0.19-1.69 4 0.3 653 0.3 1.14 0.42, 3.08
>1.69 10 0.9 649 0.3 2.66 1.40, 5.04
1,1,2-trichloroethane 0.00 1141 98.1 239864 98.9 1.00 Referent 0.059
0.01-0.45 8 0.7 853 0.4 1.66 0.82, 3.37
0.46-1.78 4 0.3 855 0.4 0.84 0.31, 2.27
>1.78 10 0.9 853 0.4 1.99 1.05, 3.76
1,2,3-trichloropropane 0.00 1139 97.9 239578 98.8 1.00 Referent 0.083
  0.01-16.45 10 0.9 950 0.4 1.77 0.94, 3.37  
  16.46-132.51 4 0.3 947 0.4 0.74 0.28, 2.00  
  >132.51 10 0.9 950 0.4 1.91 1.01, 3.63  
  1. aExposure risk value based on maternal residential proximity to source(s) of air emissions and estimated pounds of chemical emitted annually.
  2. bAdjusted for birth year and maternal race/ethnicity, age, education, and public health region.