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Table 8 Intensity of maternal residential exposure index for selected chlorinated solvents and septal heart defects in offspring

From: Maternal residential proximity to chlorinated solvent emissions and birth defects in offspring: a case–control study

Type of chlorinated solvent Intensity of exposure risk valuea Septal heart defect cases Controls Adjusted odds ratiob 95% confidence interval p- value for trend
n % n %
Any type 0.00 31536 73.6 178826 73.8 1.00 Referent 0.035
0.01-296.24 4196 9.8 21301 8.8 1.14 1.10, 1.18
296.25-3457.84 3542 8.3 21191 8.7 1.00 0.96, 1.04
>3457.84 3587 8.4 21107 8.7 1.03 0.99, 1.08
Carbon tetrachloride 0.00 41994 98.0 237857 98.1 1.00 Referent < 0.0001
0.01-189.30 271 0.6 1531 0.6 1.03 0.90, 1.18
189.31-2342.12 301 0.7 1531 0.6 1.14 1.01, 1.30
>2342.12 295 0.7 1506 0.6 1.21 1.07, 1.38
1,1-dichloroethane 0.00 42474 99.1 240578 99.2 1.00 Referent 0.003
0.01-0.53 139 0.3 618 0.3 1.32 1.09, 1.59
0.54-6.59 121 0.3 613 0.3 1.18 0.97, 1.44
>6.59 127 0.3 616 0.3 1.18 0.97, 1.43
1,2-dichloroethane 0.00 41677 97.2 235788 97.3 1.00 Referent 0.007
0.01-5.85 350 0.8 2197 0.9 0.96 0.86, 1.08
5.86-221.92 384 0.9 2215 0.9 1.03 0.92, 1.15
>221.92 450 1.0 2225 0.9 1.19 1.07, 1.32
1,2-dichloroethylene 0.00 42452 99.0 240399 99.2 1.00 Referent 0.079
0.01-0.48 165 0.4 676 0.3 1.42 1.20, 1.69
0.49-7.59 127 0.3 677 0.3 1.11 0.92, 1.35
>7.59 117 0.3 673 0.3 1.02 0.84, 1.24
Ethyl chloride 0.00 41859 97.7 237154 97.8 1.00 Referent 0.004
0.01-12.11 335 0.8 1761 0.7 1.11 0.98, 1.25
12.12-98.74 360 0.8 1764 0.7 1.19 1.06, 1.34
>98.74 307 0.7 1746 0.7 1.08 0.95, 1.22
Perchloroethylene 0.00 37553 87.6 212571 87.7 1.00 Referent 0.045
0.01-41.59 2131 5.0 9990 4.1 1.19 1.13, 1.25
41.60-221.22 1605 3.7 9959 4.1 0.94 0.89, 0.99
>221.22 1572 3.7 9905 4.1 0.92 0.87, 0.97
Propylene dichloride 0.00 42545 99.3 240907 99.4 1.00 Referent 0.143
0.01-0.02 135 0.3 508 0.2 1.55 1.28, 1.88
0.03-17.70 101 0.2 506 0.2 1.15 0.93, 1.43
>17.70 80 0.2 504 0.2 0.94 0.74, 1.19
Tetrachloroethane 0.00 42474 99.1 240470 99.2 1.00 Referent 0.113
0.01-0.18 149 0.3 653 0.3 1.32 1.10, 1.58
0.19-1.69 114 0.3 653 0.3 1.00 0.82, 1.23
>1.69 124 0.3 649 0.3 1.11 0.91, 1.24
1,1,2-trichloroethane 0.00 42374 98.9 239864 98.9 1.00 Referent 0.031
0.01-0.45 148 0.3 853 0.4 1.04 0.87, 1.24
0.46-1.78 181 0.4 855 0.4 1.25 1.06, 1.47
>1.78 158 0.4 853 0.4 1.08 0.91, 1.28
Trichloroethylene 0.00 37787 88.2 213878 88.2 1.00 Referent 0.002
0.01-56.69 1718 4.0 9539 3.9 1.07 1.01, 1.13
56.70-284.39 1611 3.8 9485 3.9 1.02 0.96, 1.08
>284.39 1745 4.1 9523 3.9 1.09 1.03, 1.15
1,2,3-trichloropropane 0.00 42319 98.7 239578 98.8 1.00 Referent 0.033
  0.01-16.45 168 0.4 950 0.4 1.05 0.89, 1.24  
  16.46-132.51 210 0.5 947 0.4 1.31 1.12, 1.52  
  >132.51 164 0.4 950 0.4 1.02 0.86, 1.21  
  1. aExposure risk value based on maternal residential proximity to source(s) of air emissions and estimated pounds of chemical emitted annually.
  2. bAdjusted for birth year and maternal race/ethnicity, age, education, and public health region.