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Table 1 Potential risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes, Camp Lejeune, 1968–1985

From: Evaluation of contaminated drinking water and preterm birth, small for gestational age, and birth weight at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina: a cross-sectional study

Risk factor Small for gestational age (total births = 11,896) Preterm birth (total births =11,896) Term low birth weight (total births = 10,990)
#, % OR #, % OR #, % OR
Race       
 “white” 1072, 12.0 1.0 (ref.) 544, 6.1 1.0 (ref.) 155, 1.9 1.0 (ref.)
 “other” 502, 16.9 1.5 (1.3,1.7) 362, 12.2 2.1 (1.9, 2.5) 91, 3.5 1.9 (1.5, 2.5)
Prenatal care*       
 Adequate 624, 11.9 1.0 (ref.) 258, 4.9 1.0 (ref.) 76, 1.5 1.0 (ref.)
 Inadequate 950, 14.2 1.2 (1.1, 1.4) 648, 9.7 2.1 (1.8, 2.4) 170, 2.8 1.9 (1.4, 2.5)
Rank       
 Officer 166, 10.1 1.0 (ref.) 62, 3.8 1.0 (ref.) 25, 1.6 1.0 (ref.)
 Enlisted 1408, 13.7 1.4 (1.2, 1.7) 844, 8.2 2.3 (1.8, 3.0) 219, 2.3 1.5 (1.0, 2.2)
Mother’s age       
 <20 304, 15.5 1.2 (1.1, 1.7) 196, 10.0 1.4 (1.2, 1.7) 42, 2.4 1.1 (0.8, 1.5)
 20-29 1132, 12.9 1.0 (ref.) 623, 7.1 1.0 (ref.) 176, 2.2 1.0 (ref.)
 30-34 108, 11.8 0.9 (0.7, 1.1) 67, 7.3 1.0 (0.8, 1.3) 21, 2.5 1.1 (0.7, 1.8)
 ≥35 30, 12.9 1.0 (0.7, 1.5) 20, 8.6 1.2 (0.8, 2.0) 7, 3.3 1.5 (0.7, 3.3)
Father’s age       
 <20 100, 15.9 1.2 (1.0, 1.5) 62, 9.8 1.3 (1.0, 1.7) 13, 2.3 1.0 (0.6, 1.8)
 20-29 1284, 13.4 1.0 (ref.) 733, 7.6 1.0 (ref.) 195, 2.2 1.0 (ref.)
 30-34 128, 10.7 0.8 (0.6, 0.9) 75, 6.3 0.8 (0.6, 1.0) 25, 2.2 1.0 (0.7, 1.5)
 ≥35 62, 13.4 1.0 (0.8, 1.3) 36, 7.8 1.0 (0.7, 1.5) 13, 3.1 1.4 (0.8, 2.5)
Parity       
 Multiparous 953, 12.2 1.0 (ref.) 650, 8.3 1.0 (ref.) 168, 2.4 1.0 (ref.)
 Primiparous 619, 15.2 1.3 (1.2, 1.4) 254, 6.2 0.7 (0.6, 0.9) 77, 2.0 0.9 (0.7, 1.1)
Mom’s education       
Not a college graduate 1474, 13.5 1.0 (ref.) 859, 7.9 1.0 (ref.) 231, 2.3 1.0 (ref.)
College grad 100, 10.6 0.8 (0.6, 0.9) 46, 4.9 0.6 (0.4, 0.8) 15, 1.7 0.7 (0.4-1.2)
Dad’s education       
Not a college graduate 1410, 13.6 1.0 (ref.) 844, 8.1 1.0 (ref.) 223, 2.3 1.0 (ref.)
College graduate 163, 11.0 0.8 (0.7, 0.9) 59, 4.0 0.5 (0.4, 0.6) 23, 1.6 0.7 (0.4-1.1)
Sex of child       
 Female 760, 12.9 1.0 (ref.) 419, 7.1 1.0 (ref.) 147, 2.7 1.0 (ref.)
 Male 814, 13.6 1.1 (1.0, 1.2) 487, 8.1 1.2 (1.0, 1.3) 99, 1.8 0.7 (0.5, 0.9)
Previous fetal death       
 0 1287, 13.0 1.0 (ref.) 719, 7.2 1.0 (ref.) 194, 2.1 1.0 (ref.)
 ≥ 1 285, 14.6 1.1 (1.0, 1.3) 185, 9.5 1.3 (1.1, 1.6) 51, 2.9 1.4 (1.0, 1.9)
  1. * “Adequate” if care began during 1st trimester and sufficient number of visits given gestational age of child at birth (Kessner 1973) [11]; rank of military member.