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Table 4 Adjusted difference in PSS score* per interquartile range increase in moving average PM 2.5 and BC exposure as predicted from spatio-temporal models

From: Associations between air pollution and perceived stress: the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study

  PM2.5 BC
  Pooled Warm season (Apr-Sep) Cold season (Mar-Oct) Pooled Warm season (Apr-Sep) Cold season (Mar-Oct)
Moving average β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI)
1-week 0.80 (0.15, 1.44) 0.43 (-0.43, 1.29) 1.34 (0.38, 2.30) 0.32 (-0.04, 0.68) 0.03 (-0.55, 0.62) 0.48 (0.03, 0.92)
2-week 1.07 (0.43, 1.71) 0.56 (-0.33, 1.46) 1.78 (0.83, 2.74) 0.28 (-0.09, 0.64) 0.04 (-0.53, 0.62) 0.41 (-0.04, 0.86)
4-week 0.96 (0.41, 1.51) 0.31 (-0.47, 1.08) 1.79 (0.93, 2.65) 0.30 (-0.06, 0.67) 0.06 (-0.51, 0.62) 0.46 (-0.00, 0.92)
  1. Abbreviations:PSS 14-item Perceived Stress Scale, PM 2.5 particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <2.5 μm, BC black carbon.
  2. *As estimated in linear mixed effect regression with random intercept for participant adjusting for seasonality, weekday of visit, 24-hour mean apparent temperature, age, race, years of education, use of anti-depressant medication, and physical activity; associations for warm and cold months are estimated from interactions between warm/cold season and moving average exposure.