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Table 3 HRs (95% CIs) for breast cancer incidence by quintile of estimated exposure among subsets for select** individual mammary gland carcinogenic compounds

From: Hazardous air pollutants and breast cancer risk in California teachers: a cohort study

Compound Subset N cases Quintile of concentration  
Quintile 1 Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5 Ptrend
Acrylamide ER+/PR+ 4,352 1 (Referent) a 1.01 (0.92, 1.11) 1.15 (1.06, 1.24)* 1.04 (0.96, 1.12) 0.020
Benzene ER-/PR- 704 1 (Referent) 1.24 (0.97, 1.57) 1.10 (0.86, 1.41) 1.02 (0.79, 1.31) 1.45 (1.15, 1.83)* 0.016
Benzidine ER+/PR+ 4,352 1 (Referent) a 0.97 (0.83, 1.13) 1.00 (0.92, 1.07) 1.12 (1.03, 1.20)* 0.022
BMI <25 3,123 1 (Referent) a 0.96 (0.80, 1.16) 1.01 (0.92, 1.10) 1.19 (1.09, 1.30)* 0.001*
Carbon tetrachloride ER+/PR+ 4,352 1 (Referent) 1.03 (0.93, 1.13) 1.10 (1.00, 1.21) 1.11 (1.01, 1.22) 1.13 (1.03, 1.25)* 0.020*
  Postmenopausal 3,604 1 (Referent) 0.96 (0.86, 1.07) 1.07 (0.97, 1.19) 1.01 (0.91, 1.12) 1.13 (1.02, 1.26)* 0.004*
HT past/never 1,052 1 (Referent) 0.96 (0.79, 1.18) 1.04 (0.85, 1.26) 1.01 (0.83, 1.23) 1.25 (1.04, 1.52)* 0.003*
BMI <25 3,123 1 (Referent) 1.07 (0.96, 1.20) 1.11 (0.99, 1.24) 1.05 (0.94, 1.18) 1.18 (1.05, 1.32)* 0.012*
Chloroprene BMI ≥25 2,311 1 (Referent) a a 1.04 (0.91, 1.20) 1.16 (1.05, 1.27)* 0.006
Ethyl carbamate BMI ≥25 2,311 1 (Referent) a a 1.03 (0.93, 1.15) 1.16 (1.06, 1.28)* 0.008
Ethylidene dichloride ER+/PR+ 4,352 1 (Referent) 1.05 (0.95, 1.16) 1.20 (1.09, 1.32)* 1.15 (1.05, 1.27)* 1.05 (0.95, 1.16) 0.029
HT past/never 1,052 1 (Referent) 1.09 (0.89, 1.34) 1.18 (0.96, 1.44) 1.35 (1.11, 1.64)* 1.28 (1.05, 1.56) 0.002*
4,4'-Methylene bis(2-chloroaniline) BMI ≥25 2,311 1 (Referent) a a 1.13 (0.97, 1.31) 1.15 (1.05, 1.27)* 0.002*
Propylene oxide Pre/ perimenopausal 1,548 1 (Referent) 1.19 (1.01, 1.40) 1.23 (1.05, 1.44)* 1.22 (1.04, 1.43) 1.15 (0.97, 1.35) 0.012
BMI <25 3,123 1 (Referent) 1.09 (0.98, 1.22) 1.16 (1.04, 1.29)* 1.04 (0.93, 1.17) 1.06 (0.95, 1.19) 0.116
Vinyl chloride ER+/PR+ 4,352 1 (Referent) 1.06 (0.96, 1.17) 1.23 (1.12, 1.35)* 1.14 (1.03, 1.25)* 1.08 (0.98, 1.19) 0.021
Postmenopausal 3,604 1 (Referent) 1.04 (0.94, 1.16) 1.14 (1.02, 1.26)* 1.08 (0.97, 1.20) 1.06 (0.95, 1.18) 0.143
HT past/never 1,052 1 (Referent) 1.05 (0.85, 1.28) 1.21 (0.99, 1.47) 1.34 (1.10, 1.63)* 1.27 (1.04, 1.54) 0.002*
HT current 2,204 1 (Referent) 1.11 (0.97, 1.27) 1.17 (1.03, 1.34)* 1.00 (0.87, 1.15) 1.01 (0.88, 1.16) 0.991
  1. Models stratified by age and adjusted for race. Quintiles based on distribution of all study participants.
  2. aQuintiles combines when a larger portion of the study participants had same concentration value.
  3. *Remains statistically significant (p < 0.05) after adjustment for multiple comparisons.
  4. **HRs for no other compounds remained statistically significant in any other subset analysis after adjustment for multiple comparisons.