Skip to main content

Table 3 Characteristics of spina bifida cases and controls, Texas, 1999-2004

From: Air toxics and birth defects: a Bayesian hierarchical approach to evaluate multiple pollutants and spina bifida

Characteristic Controls Cases P-value
N = 3,695 N = 533
Sex of infant    
    Female 1,828 (49.5) 251 (47.3) 0.34
    Male 1,867 (50.5) 280 (52.7)  
Maternal race/ethnicity    
    Non-Hispanic white 1,344 (36.5) 191 (36.0) <0.01
    Non-Hispanic black 430 (11.7) 54 (10.2)  
    Hispanic 1,773 (48.1) 280 (52.8)  
    Other 138 (3.7) 5 (0.9)  
Maternal birthplace    
    United States 2,592 (70.4) 355 (67.4) 0.05
    Mexico 785 (21.3) 145 (27.5)  
    Other 306 (8.3) 27 (5.1)  
Maternal age (years)    
    <20 501 (13.6) 76 (14.3) 0.32
    20-24 1,099 (29.7) 158 (29.6)  
    25-29 966 (26.1) 141 (26.5)  
    30-34 754 (20.4) 119 (22.3)  
    35-39 323 (8.7) 31 (5.8)  
    ≥40 52 (1.4) 8 (1.5)  
Maternal education    
    <High school 1,155 (31.7) 188 (36.4) 0.06
    High school 1,195 (32.8) 169 (32.7)  
    >High school 1,292 (35.5) 160 (30.9)  
Parity    
    0 1,314 (36.9) 190 (37.7) 0.79
    1 1,170 (32.9) 157 (31.2)  
    2 679 (19.1) 95 (18.8)  
    ≥3 396 (11.1) 62 (12.3)  
Maternal smoking    
    No 3,447 (93.9) 505 (95.5) 0.15
    Yes 225 (6.1) 24 (4.5)  
Census tract poverty level    
    Low 922 (25.0) 100 (18.8) 0.02
    Medium-low 925 (25.0) 144 (27.0)  
    Medium-high 925 (25.0) 137 (25.7)  
    High 925 (25.0) 152 (28.5)  
Season of conception    
    Spring 807 (24.0) 106 (22.5) 0.45
    Summer 798 (23.7) 127 (27.0)  
    Fall 876 (26.0) 122 (25.9)  
    Winter 887 (26.3) 116 (24.6)