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Table 4 Modification by county characteristics

From: Temperature, ozone, and mortality in urban and non-urban counties in the northeastern United States

  % Increase in mortality per 10 ppb ozone, adjusted for community characteristic % Change in ozone effect estimate per IQR1increase in community level variable % Increase in mortality 90 F vs 70 F, adjusted for community characteristic % Change in temperature effect estimate per IQR1increase in community level variable
  Central estimate 95% PI Central estimate 95% PI Central estimate 95% PI Central estimate 95% PI
No modification by county characteristic 0.55 (0.25, 0.86) - - 8.44 (7.24, 9.65) - -
% Families Poverty 0.64 (0.37, 0.90) −0.02 (−0.04, −0.01) 8.21 (7.17, 9.26) 1.22 (0.59, 1.85)
Population Density 0.66 (0.36, 0.96) −0.002 (−0.003,−0.0001) 8.09 (6.94, 9.26) 0.08 (0.01, 0.15)
% Over 65 0.59 (0.31, 0.88) 4.41 (0.75, 8.21) 8.37 (7.20, 9.55) −51.42 (−88.29, 101.45)
Mean ozone 0.56 (0.25, 0.86) 0.001 (−0.02, 0.02) 8.60 (7.45, 9.76) −0.71 (−1.51, 0.09)
Mean temperature 0.70 (0.35, 1.05) −0.04 (−0.10, 0.01) 9.02 (7.66, 10.40) −1.81 (−3.78, 0.21)
  1. 1IQR = Interquartile Range; IQR for families in poverty = 3.6%, IQR for population density = 891 persons/mile2, IQR for residents over age 65 = 2.9%, IQR for ozone concentration = 2.3 ppb, IQR for temperature = 3.6°F.
  2. All ozone results include adjustment for temperature; temperature results do not include adjustment for ozone. Estimates are based on 4 degrees of freedom/year for temporal trend.