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Table 1 The distribution the demographic variables and other risk factors, by CKDu outcome

From: Drinking well water and occupational exposure to Herbicides is associated with chronic kidney disease, in Padavi-Sripura, Sri Lanka

  CKDu Patients (Cases) N = 125(%) Non CKD (Controls) N = 180 (%) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) p-value
Gender
Male 89 (71.2) 98 (54.4) 2.07 (1.27-3.36) 0.0031*
Female 36 (18.8) 82 (45.6)
Education
Up to OL 92 (73.6) 147 (81.7) 0.64 (0.37-1.10) 0.1041
Higher education 33 (26.4) 33 (18.3)
Farming
Yes 107 (85.6) 118 (65.6) 3.12 (1.74-5.61) < 0.0001*
No 18 (14.4) 62 (34.4)
Pesticide application
Yes 86 (68.8) 72 (40.0) 3.31 (2.04-5.36) <0.0001*
No 39 (31.2) 108 (60.0)
Applying Fertilizer
Yes 95 (76.0) 103 (57.2) 2.37 (1.43-3.93) < 0.0001*
No 30 (24.0) 77 (42.8)
Drinking well water
Yes 116 (92.8) 131 (72.8) 4.82 (2.27-10.24) < 0.0001*
No 9 (7.2) 49 (27.2)
History of drinking water from abandoned well
Yes 58 (46.4) 20 (11.1) 6.93 (3.87-12.40) < 0.0001*
No 67 (53.6) 160 (88.9)
Smoking
Yes 36 (28.8) 37 (20.6) 1.56 (0.92-2.66) 0.0970
No 89 (71.2) 143 (79.4)
Illicit alcohol
Yes 17 (13.6) 21 (11.7) 1.19 (0.60-2.36) 0.6150
No 108 (86.4) 159 (88.3)
Betel chewing
Yes 106 (84.8) 152 (84.4) 1.03 (0.55-1.94)0.9326
No 19 (15.2) 28 (15.6)
Tobacco with betel chewing
Yes 92 (73.6) 129 (71.7) 1.10 (0.66-1.84) 0.7101
No 33 (26.4) 51 (28.3)
Long term pain killer use
Yes 10 (8.0) 15 (8.3) 0.96 (0.42-2.20) 0.9169
No 115 (92.0) 165 (91.7)
Family history of death due to CKD
Yes 9 (7.2) 13 (7.2) 1.00 (0.41- 2.41) 0.9941
No 116 (92.8) 167 (92.8)
Ever used Organophosphate
Yes 54 (43.2) 54 (30.0) 1.77 (1.10-2.86) 0.0183*
No 71 (56.8) 126 (70.0)
Ever used Paraquat
Yes 64 (51.2) 53 (29.4) 2.51 (1.56-4.04) 0.0001*
No 61 (48.8) 127 (70.6)
Ever used MCPA
Yes 56 (44.8) 56 (31.1) 1.80 (1.12-2.88) 0.0152*
No 69 (55.2) 124 (68.9)
Ever used Glyphosate
Yes 82 (65.6) 55 (30.6) 4.33 (2.66-7.05) <0.0001*
No 43 (34.4) 125 (69.4)
Ever used Bispyribac
Yes 64 (51.2) 62 (34.4) 2.00 (1.25-3.18) 0.0037*
No 61 (48.8) 118 (65.6)
Ever used Carbofuran
Yes 46 (36.8) 51 (28.3) 1.47 (0.91-2.40) 0.1192
No 79 (63.2) 129 (71.7)
Ever used Mancozeb
Yes 46 (36.8) 51 (28.3) 1.94(1.21-3.13) 0.0062*
No 79 (63.2) 129 (71.7)
  1. *P < 0.05.