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Table 3 Other potential risk factors for children's exposure to lead by blood lead concentrations

From: Blood Lead Concentrations in 1–3 Year Old Lebanese Children: A Cross-sectional study

  Blood lead concentration (μg/L)   
  <100 (N = 242) n (%) > = 100 (N = 39) n (%) Total (N = 281) n (%) P-value
Overall health status     
   Good-Excellent 188 (77.7) 30 (76.9) 218 (77.6) 0.92
   Poor-Satisfactory 54 (22.3) 9 (23.1) 63 (22.4)  
Iron deficiency     
   No 163 (76.9) 26 (66.7) 189 (67.7) 0.94
   Yes, without anemia 27 (11.3) 4 (10.3) 31 (11.1)  
   Yes, with anemia 50 (20.8) 9 (23.1) 59 (21.1)  
Source of drinking water     
   Municipality 88 (36.4) 20 (51.3) 108 (38.4) 0.08
   Other† 154 (63.6) 19 (48.7) 173 (61.6)  
Source of water for cooking     
   Municipality 144 (60.3) 25 (64.1) 169 (60.8) 0.65
   Other† 95 (39.7) 14 (35.9) 109 (39.2)  
Use hot tap water for milk or cooking     
   Yes 14 (5.9) 6 (15.8) 20 (7.2) 0.03
   No 225 (94.1) 32 (84.2) 257 (92.8)  
Runs tap water before use     
   Yes 121 (51.3) 23 (59.0) 144 (52.4) 0.37
   No 115 (48.7) 16 (41.0) 131 (47.6)  
Child eats canned food     
   Yes 73 (30.2) 12 (30.8) 85 (30.2) 0.94
   No 169 (69.8) 27 (69.2) 196 (69.8)  
Use glazed pottery for food‡     
   Yes 19 (8.2) 1 (2.6) 20 (7.4) 0.33
   No 213 (91.8) 38 (97.4) 251 (92.6)  
Pica behavior§     
   Yes 66 (27.7) 9 (23.1) 75 (27.1) 0.54
   No 172 (72.3) 30 (76.9) 202 (72.9)  
Ever applied kohl on child     
   Yes 30 (12.4) 13 (33.3) 43 (15.3) 0.001
   No 212 (87.6) 26 (66.7) 238 (84.7)  
Child plays outside home     
   Yes 48 (20.5) 11 (28.2) 59 (21.6) 0.28
   No 186 (79.5) 28 (71.8) 214 (78.4)  
Child goes to school     
   Yes 31 (12.9) 6 (15.8) 37 (13.3) 0.63
   No 209 (87.1) 32 (84.2) 241 (86.7)  
Mother smokes     
   Yes 71 (29.3) 13 (33.3) 84 (29.9) 0.61
   No 171 (70.7) 26 (66.7) 197 (70.1)  
Exposure to passive smoking¶     
   Yes 161 (66.8) 29 (74.4) 190 (67.9) 0.59
   No 80 (33.2) 10 (25.6) 90 (32.1)  
Potential for father's occupational exposure to lead††     
   Low 164 (67.8) 18 (47.4) 182 (66.2) 0.008
   Moderate-High 73 (30.8) 20 (52.6) 93 (33.8)  
Mother's hobbies with potential Pb exposure‡‡     
   Yes 10 (4.1) 2 (5.1) 12 (4.3) 0.78
   No 232 (95.9) 37 (94.9) 269 (95.7)  
Father's hobbies with potential Pb exposure‡‡     
   Yes 73 (30.2) 14 (35.9) 87 (31.0) 0.47
   No 169 (69.8) 25 (64.1) 194 (69.0)  
  1. Note: Missing data in some variables. † Bottled water, Springs. ‡ For cooking or serving food §Child seen eating clay, dirt, paint, plaster, or material from the floor. Outside home, such as playground, street, parking lot, or garden. ¶Any smoker (father, mother, or other resident) at home. †† Based on job title. ‡‡ Hobbies such as painting, hunting, or fishing.