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Table 3 Lifetime cumulative ETS exposure and the risk of COPD in a population based sample of 2,113 U.S. adults aged 55 to 75 years

From: Lifetime environmental tobacco smoke exposure and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Source of exposure Level of exposure Risk of COPD (unadjusted) Risk of COPD, controlling for smoking Risk of COPD, controlling for smoking, sociodemographic indicators Risk of COPD, controlling for smoking, sociodemographic indicators, and workplace VGDF
   OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Prenatal Mother smoked in pregnancy 1.54 (1.01 to 2.33) 1.32 (0.86 to 2.01) 1.41 (0.90 to 2.21) 1.36 (0.86 to 2.14)
Home 1st quartile (0–9 yrs) 1.0 (referent) 1.0 (referent) 1.0 (referent) 1.0 (referent)
  2nd quartile (10–21 yrs) 0.99 (0.69 to 1.41) 0.88 (0.61 to 1.25) 0.92 (0.64 to 1.34) 0.90 (0.62 to 1.31)
  3rd quartile (22–41 yrs) 1.21 (0.86 to 1.70) 0.95 (0.67 to 1.35) 0.95 (0.66 to 1.37) 0.94 (0.65 to 1.36)
  4th quartile (≥42 yrs) 2.69 (1.97 to 3.68) 1.88 (1.35 to 2.61) 1.68 (1.19 to 2.38) 1.55 (1.09 to 2.21)
Work 1st & 2nd quartile (0–5 yrs)* 1.0 (referent) 1.0 (referent) 1.0 (referent) 1.0 (referent)
  3rd quartile (6–22 yrs) 1.14 (0.86 to 1.51) 0.97 (0.73 to 1.30) 1.02 (0.76 to 1.38) 0.91 (0.67 to 1.24)
  4th quartile (≥23 yrs) 1.73 (1.34 to 2.24) 1.34 (1.02 to 1.75) 1.60 (1.20 to 2.14) 1.36 (1.002 to 1.84)
  1. VGDF = self-reported exposure to vapors, gas, dust, or fumes during longest held job
  2. *First and second quartile were both zero, so they were combined as the referent group (otherwise both lower categories would include zero values)
  3. Multivariate logistic regression analysis controlling for age, sex, race, smoking history, educational attainment, and marital status. Each source of ETS exposure was evaluated in a separate logistic regression model.